From 1918 to 1920, Pinsk passed from one regime to another. The city witnessed seven regimes during the period, starting with the rule of the German-Ukrainian Condominium, following the peace treaty at Brest. Ukraine then took over, followed by the Bolsheviks of Russia and then Poland. The murder of the “thirty-five” occurred on April 5, 1919, after which Pinsk came under Bolshevik rule for the second time. On September 26–29, 1920, the “White” (anti-Bolshevik) forces led by Bolak and Boris Balakhovich invaded Pinsk and initiated riots. This was followed by the second Polish regime. Pinsk was clearly besieged by political turmoil during the period. In contrast, the Russian revolution and the Balfour Declaration of 1917 brought hope and optimism to the city's young Jews.
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