The Final Solution, or Endlösung, of the Jewish Question was an attempt by the Nazis to expel the Jews from the Reich. The general situation during World War II may well have affected Germany's decision to implement the Final Solution in Salonika and its environs. In response to the series of military disasters suffered by the Axis in November 1942, Adolf Hitler reorganized the Balkan front in his war directive of December 28, 1942 as preparation for a possible invasion of Crete, the German and Italian bases in the Aegean, and the Balkan Peninsula. Greek Jews underwent isolation and ghettoization, getting a reprieve only from Italy. Their deportation began in March 1943 and ended a year later. Before the Germans left Greece by the end of October 1944, approximately 90 percent of prewar Greek Jewry was dead.
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