The social transformations that took place in Egypt between the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century are familiar to historians who focus on colonialism. Colonial states and their administrative and bureaucratic infrastructures produced intellectuals such as teachers, engineers, lawyers, accountants, translators, and clerks developed a consciousness defined by a bourgeois political outlook defined by nationalism and a desire for a national identity. However, a number of factors made Egypt's situation different. Moreover, almost all forms of cultural production during the period included references to Islam and Islamic reform. This book has demonstrated the ways that discourses on peasants, on civilizing, and on reform were tied to the interests of specific social groups in Egypt. It has also argued that both “secular modern” thought and “Islamic” modernism had the same intellectual and cultural origins.
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