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Opera and the CityThe Politics of Culture in Beijing, 1770–1900$

Andrea Goldman

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780804778312

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804778312.001.0001

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(p.353) Index

(p.353) Index

Source:
Opera and the City
Publisher:
Stanford University Press

Italicized page numbers indicate illustrations.

Abstracts of the Complete Titles of the Sea of Drama (Quhai zongmu tiyao), 148, 159
actors and acting troupes.
boy actresses (see dan actors)
connoisseurs focused on performance of, 104–5
genre restrictions, response to, 117
Huiban, 84, 85, 104, 127–29, 136, 138, 249, 305n56, 305n60, 305n68, 306n70
imperial court and, 106, 111–12, 119, 121, 134, 136–40
performance role types, 251
popularity of qinqiang style affecting, 126
princely sponsorship of, 304n49
private or household troupes, 68, 97–99, 287–88n10
resistance, opera as site of, 241
salon performances, actor-audience dynamic at, 101–4
status of, 102, 139, 293n87 See also specific troupes and actors by name
Actor's Guild, Jingzhong Temple, Beijing, 69, 90, 91, 117, 136–37, 140
actress/courtesan texts, borrowed discourse of huapu from, 21, 25–28, 31–33
All-China Drama Gazetteer (Zhongguo xiqu zhi), 2
All Nine Modes (Great Compilation of Musical Scores from the Southern and Northern Arias in All Nine Modes) (Jiugong dacheng nanbeici gongpu), 116, 117, 121–23, 132, 302–3n23
Alum-Paper Winehouse or Fanlou, Kaifeng, 54, 285–86n144
andian ben, 111, 329n150
Annals of the Tripartite Division (Dingzhi chunqiu), 214
apartheid regime, Qing state as, 68–69
Assorted Notes toward a Dream of Splendors Past (Menghua suobu) (Yang Maojian, 1842), 36, 37, 38, 40, 45, 54
audience
connoisseurs (see connoisseurs of opera)
lao dou (sugar daddies), 18–20, 22, 31, 53–58
pihuang versions of “I, Sister-in-Law,” audience responses to, 226–33, 229, 230
playhouses, audience-actor dynamics in, 66, 83, 84–86
salon performances, actor-audience dynamic at, 101–4
salon performances, social homogeneity of audience at, 98
temple fairs and temple stages, social and ethnic mixing at, 65, 87, 91–95
“bamboo-branch ditties” (zhuzhici), 17, 20, 53, 73
Bamboo-Branch Ditties from the Capital (1814), 17, 63
bangzi opera, 49, 57, 84, 116, 119, 133, 249
banner population
ethnic identity of, 288n19
as opera attendees, 4, 65–66, 86
playhouses, efforts to forbid attendance at, 71–76
salon performances and, 98
Beijing Actor's Guild, Jingzhong Temple, 69, 90, 91, 117, 136–37, 140
Beijing opera during Qing dynasty. See opera in Qing Beijing
(p.354) Beijing, urban plan of, 69, 70, 71
bense, 158, 313n37
Berezin, Mabel, 173
Blue Tower Collection (Qinglou ji) (Xia Tingshi, fourteenth century), 26, 27
Bourdieu, Pierre, 301n8
Boxer Uprising (1900), 10
boy actresses. See dan actors
Brief Register of Foam on the Sea, A (Haiou xiaopu) (Zhao Qiugu; 1704), 26–27, 28, 278n20
Brief Register of Songbirds and Flowers, A (Yinghua xiaopu), 28
Brief Register of the Orchids of Yan, A (Yanlan xiaopu) (Wu Changyuan, 1785)
civic guidebook / urban memoir literature influencing, 37, 280n64
connoisseurship in, 40–44, 46–50
courtesan/actress texts, borrowed discourse from, 26–28, 31
on The Garden of Turquoise and Jade performances, 145, 147, 167
huabu, enthusiasm for, 132, 307n87
on “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 210
on lao dou, 54–57
on playhouses, 77–78
popularity and prominence of, 18, 23, 283n105
on qinqiang performers, 126, 305–6n69
on tie dan roles, 208
on Zha playhouse (Zhalou), 290n52
Brooks, Peter, 155, 163, 311n22, 311n24, 315n62
Bureau of Ascendant Peace (Shengping shu). See Shengping shu
Cao Family, 323n59
capital melody. See jingqiang
“chaotic strumming” (luantan), 116, 119, 132, 136, 224, 250, 306n70, 307n94
character or clown roles
in “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 192, 198, 201–2, 209–10, 324–25n89
Suzhou dialect used by (see Suzhou dialect of clown/character parts)
Chen Guilin, 167
Chen Moxiang, 134, 175, 223–24, 229–31, 232, 318n13, 330n166
Chen Sen, 133, 210–11, 280n53
Chen Weisong, 284n115
Chen Yinguan, 124–25, 127, 128
Cheng Changgeng, 137
Chong Yi, 92–93
Chronicle of Lovers and Heroes, A (Ernü yingxiong zhuan), 82, 158
Chronicles of the Northern Quarter (Beili zhi) (Sun Qi, ca. 888), 21, 26, 278n20
chuanqi dramas
adaptation of Kun opera from, 84, 218–19
defined, 249
Water Margin story cycle rewritten as, 176
Chubby Zhu the Ninth (Zhu Jiu Pangzi), 47–48
Chuntai troupe, 48, 165, 226, 249
civic guidebook / urban memoir literature, borrowed discourse of huapu from, 21–22, 35–39
civil service examinees
as opera connoisseurs, 4, 44–45, 47
at playhouses, 76–78
sons and nephews of sitting officials allowed to take provincial-level exam in Shuntian Prefecture, 290n48
Cixi (Empress Dowager), 106, 109, 112, 134, 136, 218, 221
Clifford, James, 38
Cloak of Patchworked White Fur, A (Zhuibaiqiu) (Qian Decang)
on The Garden of Turquoise and Jade, 161, 162, 169, 171, 172
genre delineation and, 130
“I, Sister-in-Law” operas and, 192, 196–98, 200, 202, 204–5, 215
on salon performances, 105, 106
Clover, Carol, 330n173
clown or character roles
in “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 192, 198, 201–2, 209–10, 324–25n89
Suzhou dialect used by (see Suzhou dialect of clown/character parts)
Clunas, Craig, 25
Cobbler Kills His Wife, The (Pijiang sha qi), or “The Cobbler Killer” (Sha pi), 175, 226, 227, 232, 318n3
Collected Publications of Rare Editions of Drama (Guben xiqu congkan), 148, 167, 169
Collection of Goose-Tracks from the Yan Stage, A (Yantai hongzhua ji) (Yang Cuiyan), 44, 281n86
Commentary of Master Zuo (Zuo zhuan), 23
commercial playhouses. See playhouses
companionate marriage, 167, 299n160
(p.355) Compendium of Trustworthy Words and Prudent Deeds, A (Yongxing bian), 149
Complete Works of the Four Treasuries (Siku quanshu), 43–44
Concise Sketch of the Imperial Enclosure, A (Chenyuan shilüe) (Wu Changyuan, 1788), 43–44, 280n64
Confucianism and neo-Confucianism, 10, 38, 157, 239, 245, 246, 312n3334
Congshen (Patriarch of Zhaozhou), 309n1
connoisseurs of opera, 22, 39–52
career disappointments and outsider status, 22, 43–47, 58, 172
companionate marriage couple as, 299n160, 318n100
dan actors, aesthetic criteria for, 50–52
dan actors, identification with, 172, 241
eccentricity, cultivation of, 47–48, 57
eclecticism of opera preferences, 48–49, 57, 117, 131–34
historical and nostalgic voice of, 36–39, 59
identifying, 42–43, 281n86
lao dou (sugar daddies), self-distinction from, 22, 53, 57, 78, 241
legitimizing, formalistic style combined with sensually indulgent content by, 29, 59
literary tradition of connoisseurship texts and, 23–24
resistance, opera as site of, 239–40
salon performances and, 104–5
sex market for dan actors and, 33–34, 51, 280n50, 285n132
textual community created by, 40–42
writing huapu as mark of connoisseurship, 58
Country Chats on Flowery Opera (Huabu nongtan) (Jiao Xun), 132
court. See Qing court
courtesan/actress texts, borrowed discourse of huapu from, 21, 25–28, 31–33
Crossley, Pamela, 121
Cuiping Mountain (Cuiping shan) (Shen Zijin, before 1636), 176, 178, 186–91, 196, 200, 204–8, 213, 216, 321n37, 322n46, 327n126
“Cuiping Mountain” (pihuang version), 222–23, 226, 228–31, 328n137, 329n154, 330n163, 330n164
cult of qing, 33–34, 155, 158, 173, 208, 234, 280n49, 313n39
“cultural field,” concept of, 301n8
Dai Lu, 304n49
Daily Records from the Cottage of Yesteryear's Mistakes (Zuofeian rizuan), 149–50
dan actors (boy actresses)
aesthetic criteria of huapu authors for, 50–52
age range of, 52, 285n14042
circumstances of, 84–85
commodification of, 25
condescension of huapu authors towards, 50–51
connoisseurs' identification with, 172, 241
courtesan/actress texts, borrowed discourse of huapu from, 21, 25–28, 31–33
demographic expansion and supply of, 4
depictions of, Plates 1 and 2
flower metaphors for, 28–31, 283n110
flower registers or huapu devoted to, 17–20, 21, 25, 28–31
in The Garden of Turquoise and Jade, 145, 165
gender and status hierarchy, superimposition of, 66, 85
hierarchy of, 286n156
in “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 207–11, 227
pathos of, 33, 34–35, 50–51
performance role types, list of, 251
playhouses, audience-actor dynamics in, 66, 83, 84–86
primary (zheng) and secondary (xiao and tie) performers, 181, 207–8, 325n91
purchased out of service contracts by lao dou, 54
qiao shoes, wearing, 124, 138, 229, 303n38
resistance, opera as site of, 240
sex market, association with, 31–34, 51, 280n50, 285n132
stage-left balcony seats, desirability of, 18–20, 19
in temple-fair performances, 96–97
women as audience and, 96–97, 106
Daoguang emperor, 112, 135
Dark Snow Catalog (Xuanxue pu) (ca. 1628–44), 192, 193, 194
Donglin partisans, 156
Dream of Nanke, 46, 283n107
Dream of Splendors Past in the Eastern Capital, A (Dongjing menghua lu) (Meng Yuanlao, 1147), 22, 35–36, 38
Dream of the Red Chamber (Honglou meng), 98
Du Fu, 47, 283–84n112
(p.356) Du Mu, 26, 27, 278n19
Du Shuangshou, 167, 317n86, 327n126
eccentricity, opera connoisseurs' cultivation of, 47–48, 57
Eight Trigrams Uprising (1813), 290n44
Elliott, Mark, 68
Epstein, Maram, 158
erhuang, 119, 128, 133–34, 136, 307n89
Ershisi shipin (Sikong Tu), 277n10
Established Pitches for Southern Lyrics (Nanci dinglu), 121, 303n24
ethnicity issues.
apartheid regime, Qing state as, 68–69
banner population, ethnic identity of, 288n19
at opera venues generally, 11, 64, 65–67
playhouses
efforts to restrict location of and attendance at, 74–75
social and ethnic mixing at, 11, 64, 65–67, 78, 82, 240–41
salon performances and, 98, 102, 298n144
Taiping rebellion and ethnic identity of Qing court, 243–45
temple fairs, social and ethnic mixing at, 65, 87, 91–95
venues, general social and ethnic mixing at, 65, 112–13, 240–41 See also Jiangnan elites
evaluative classification (pin), concept of, 21, 24–25, 29
Expanded and Corrected Scores for Northern Lyrics (Beici guangzheng pu), 121, 303n24
Extended Record of Dream Splendors (Menghua wailu), 41
Fan Chengda, 277n11
Fanlou or Alum-Paper Winehouse, Kaifeng, 54, 285–86n144
Fei, Si-yen, 7
Feng Menglong, 97, 155
Feng Mengzhen, 320n25
Fifteen Strings of Cash (Shiwu guan) (Zhu Suchen), 155
flower registers or huapu, 9–11, 17–60
aesthetic criteria for dan actors, 50–52
aesthetic eclecticism of authors, 48–49, 57
civic guidebook / urban memoir literature influencing, 21–22, 35–39
connoisseur authors of (see connoisseurs of opera)
courtesan/actress texts, borrowed discourse from, 21, 25–28, 31–33
dan actors, devotion to, 17–20, 21, 25, 28–31
defined, 17–18
“ethnographic mode” in, 33, 37–38, 53
evaluative classification (pin), concept of, 21, 24–25, 29
flower metaphors for dan actors in, 28–31, 283n110
historical and nostalgic voice in, 36–39, 59
on “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 207–12, 324n88
lao dou (sugar daddies) in, 18–20, 22, 31, 53–58, 241, 277n3
organization and contents, 22
pathos of dan actors, 33, 34–35, 50–51
percentage of kunju and pihuang actors in, 134
production history, 20–21
readers of, 59–60
sex market and, 31–34, 51, 280n50, 285n132
significance of, 20, 58–60
stage-left balcony seats, desirability of, 18–20, 19
flowery opera. See huabu opera
Forbidden City. See imperial palace
Forgotten Events of the Xuanhe Reign (Xuanhe yishi), 178, 180, 186
“Fourth Son Visits His Mother” (Silang tanmu),Plates 1 and 2
Garden of Turquoise and Jade, The (Feicui yuan) (attrib. Zhu Suchen, ca. 1620–1701), 12, 145–74
authorship, dating, and sources of, 148–50, 310n19
on commercial stage, 160–71
dan actors, appeal of, 145, 165
happy ending, use or disuse of, 147, 164, 166–67
production scripts, 161–63, 162, 165–71, 168, 170, 314–15n55, 314n50
seamstress character Zhao Cui'er as main attraction, 145, 161, 163, 165–67
selection of scenes staged, 147, 160–61
(p.357) sentimentality and sensationalism, importance of, 163–65, 169, 172
Steamed-Bun character, use of dialect by, 169–71
as courtroom drama, 157–58
female audience for, 316n69
gender and class politics of, 146–48, 155–60, 164, 172–74, 238–39
“I, Sister-in-Law” operas compared, 177, 202, 234
migration of plot to other genres, 311n25
modern revival of, 311n25
plotline of, 145–46, 150–55, 159–60
Qing court script, double marriage preserved in, 167–69, 170
resistance, opera as site of, 238–39
scripts, list of, 252–54
gender and gender representation, 8–9. See also dan actors; women
companionate marriage, 167, 299n160
The Garden of Turquoise and Jade, gender and class politics of, 146–48, 155–60, 164, 172–74, 238–39
in “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 176, 177, 217, 218, 228–34, 238–39
resistance, opera as site of, 237–42
genres of opera, 12, 115–41.
diversity of, 116
hybridization and delineation, 129–34
Qing court's efforts to control, 5, 12, 115–18, 140–41
before 1860, 119–28, 120
after 1860, 134–40
qinqiang opera, suppression of, 115, 124–27
scholarly research on opera, patronage of, 121–24
state power, opera patronage as sign of, 119–22, 120
yabu versus huabu categories, 118–19 (see also huabu opera; Kun opera) See also specific genres
Goldstein, Joshua, 287n6
Gong Zizhen, 130, 306n81
Gong'an School, 157
Grimsted, David, 315n62
Gu Lu, 121
Guangxu emperor, 244
Guanju Daoren, 307n95
guidebook literature. See flower registers or huapu
Habermas, Jürgen, 6–8
Handful of Snow, A (Yipengxue) (Li Yu), 156, 311–12n29
hanxu, 51
He Liangjun, 97
Hechun Troupe, 226, 249
Heshen (Manchu Grand Councilor), 164, 316n64
Hexun (imperial censor), 72, 73–74, 75
historical and nostalgic voice in flower registers or huapu, 36–39, 59
History of Flowers in the Phoenix City, A (Fengcheng huashi), 41
Hong Sheng, 205
Hongzi Li Er, 182, 186
Hsia, C. T., 321n32
Hu Ji, 306n70
Hua Wei, 318n100
huabu opera, 3, 118–19.
connoisseurs' eclecticism regarding, 48–49, 57, 117, 131–34
court sensibilities embracing, 134–38, 140–41
defined, 249
hybridization and delineation of genres, 129–34
lowbrow, regarded as, 117
proscription attempts, 5 See also specific types, e.g., pihuang opera
Huang Xiangjian, 149
Hui troupes (Huiban), 84, 85, 104, 127–29, 136, 138, 249, 305n56, 305n60, 305n68, 306n70
huidiao, 83
“I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 12. See also Cuiping Mountain; Record of the Water Margin, The; Righteous Hero, The dan actors in, 207–11, 227
The Garden of Turquoise and Jade compared, 177, 202, 234
gender politics of, 176, 177, 217, 218, 228–34, 238–39
huapu commentaries on, 207–12, 324n88
kunju versions of, 13, 176–77, 205–12, 233, 234
pihuang versions of, 13, 177, 217–33
adaptation of chuanqi scripts to pihuang conventions, 218–26
audience responses to, 226–33, 229, 230
(p.358) sex and violence in, 217, 218, 223–26, 229–33, 234
plotlines and themes, development of and variations on, 178–91
from Cuiping Mountain (Cuiping shan), 186–91
from The Record of the Water Margin (Shuihu ji), 178–82
from The Righteous Hero (Yixia ji), 182–86
popularity of, 205–7, 212
progression from page to stage, 191–205
clown or character roles and humor, increasing stress on, 192, 198, 201–2, 209–10, 324–25 n89
colloquial language and spoken dialogue, increasing use of, 192–200
drama miscellanies showing, 191–98, 19395
modifications to character, plot, and theme, 198–99, 200–201, 203–5
production scripts showing, 13, 176–77, 198–205
scene-ending couplets, revision of, 199–200
Qing court and (see under Qing court)
resistance, opera as site of, 238–39
scripts, list of, 255–58
sentimentality and sensationalism, importance of, 191–92, 196, 203–7, 232
sex and violence
didactic versus entertainment value of, 175–76, 232–35
in kunju versions, 217, 218, 223–24
in pihuang tradition, 217, 218, 223–26, 229–33, 234
in Qing court's version, 217
shifting sympathies regarding, 242
temple performances of, 212
Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan) story cycle, derived from, 12, 176, 178
imperial court. See Qing court
imperial palace (Forbidden City), Beijing Jacobean masque, court performances compared to, 65, 109, 300n173
layout of, 69, 70, 71
salon performances at, 65, 66–67, 106–12, 110, 111, 300n169
Imperial Textile Manufactories, 121, 134, 137
Inner City, Beijing, 69, 70, 71, 98
Issei, Tanaka, 3
Jacobean masque, court performances compared to, 65, 109, 300n173
Jade Hairpin, The (Yuchai ji), 310n19
Jealousy-Curing Stew (Liaodu geng), 51, 89
Jiangnan elites
as connoisseurs and taste-setters, 4, 5, 118
gendered nature of position of, 172
kunju opera genre favored by, 115
Suzhou dialect, clown/character roles' use of, 171, 202
Taiping Rebellion (1850–64) affecting, 139
Jiaqing emperor, 73, 111–12
Jifang Troupe, 161, 291n60, 314n54
Jin dynasty, 212
Jin Ping Mei cihua (1617), 192, 195
Jin Shengtan, 180, 188, 320n23
jingqiang, 91, 116, 126, 250
Jingzhong Temple / Actor's Guild, Beijing, 69, 90, 91, 117, 136–37, 140
Jinyu Troupe, 96, 166
Johnson, David, 282n91
Kangxi emperor, 71–72, 107, 119–21, 120
kuben, 329n150
Kun-du-le, 75
Kun opera (kunju, kunqu), 3, 118
commercial performance, attempts to exclude from, 117
decline of, 12
defined, 250
favored position of, 115–16
The Garden of Turquoise and Jade (Feicui yuan) (see Garden of Turquoise and Jade, The)
huapu connoisseurs' eclecticism regarding, 48–49
hybridization and delineation of genres, 129–34
“I, Sister-in-Law” productions, 13, 176–77, 205–12, 233, 234
Jiangnan, audience from, 4
playhouse performances, nature of, 83–84
romantic and sexually explicit plots in, 125
Lam, Joseph, 130
Lamp at the Fork in the Road, The (Qilu deng), 77, 103
lao dou (sugar daddies), 18–20, 22, 31, 53–58, 78, 241, 277n3
(p.359) Last Word Studio (Musical Scores from the Last Word Studio) (Nashuying qupu) (Ye Tang), 117, 129–31, 306n79
Latter-Day Adept of the Iron Flute, The (Xiao tiedi daoren), 36, 41, 50
Lean, Eugenia, 8
Lee, Haiyan, 8
Lesser Yang Xiong, The (Bing Yang Xiong) (Hongzi Li Er), 186
Li Dou, 125, 127, 129, 209, 211–12, 305n60
Li Kaixian, 97
Li Lülin, 166
Li, Wai-yee, 25, 34
Li Xu, 121
Li Yu, 97, 148–49, 155, 310n13
Liao Ben, 67, 287n9
Liao dynasty, 212
Lingguanmiao (Temple to the Divine Agent), 1838 incident at, 92–95
Liu Langyu, 128
Liu Lixian, 44–45
Liu Zhizhong, 306n70
“Longing for the Secular Life” (Si fan), 163, 208
Lu Eting, 159, 314n48, 325n91, 325n102
Lü Tiancheng, 185, 319n15, 320n25, 320n28, 322n41
luantan (“chaotic strumming”), 116, 119, 132, 136, 224, 250, 306n70, 307n94
Luo Ying'an, 138, 232–33
Mann, Susan, 234
Mao Xiang, 97
Master's Evaluation of Old Plays, The (Lige piping jiu ximu) (Wu Zhensheng and Cheng Qiong), 299n160, 318n100
McCartney, Earl George, 108–9
McMahon, Keith, 172
Mei Lanfang, 136, Plate 2
Mei Qiaoling, Plate 2
Meipu (Fan Chengda), 277n11
melodrama. See sentimentality and sensationalism of opera, importance of
merchants, as lao dou, 53–58, 78
Ming dynasty
courtesan literature from, 32–33
palace entertainment bureau of, 119
pin, concept of, 24–25
Qing drama influenced by values of, 10, 157, 158, 173, 234–35, 318n100
reign periods, xi
salon performances in, 97
Suzhou dramatists on, 156–57
Water Margin story cycle in, 180
Miscellaneous Notes from the Wooden Bridge (Banqiao zaji) (Yu Huai, 1697), 26, 27, 278n20
Miscellaneous Records from Court and Society since the Daoguang and Xianfeng Reigns (Dao Xian yilai chaoye zaji) (Chong Yi), 92–93
Mulian story cycle (Quanshan jinke), 106, 120, 213, 326n115
Nanfu, 106, 119, 121, 135
Naquin, Susan, 7, 87
neo-Confucianism and Confucianism, 10, 38, 157, 239, 245, 246, 312n3334
New Odes to While Away the Winter (Xiaohan xinyong) (1795), 28, 36, 42, 132, 279n42, 284n121
New Records on Listening to Youth (Tingchun xinyong), 41, 132
Ni Zan, 50
Northern Song dynasty, temple stages emerging during, 67
nostalgic and historical voice in flower registers or huapu, 36–39, 59
official elites
civil service examinees, as opera connoisseurs, 4, 44–45, 47
connoisseur authors of huapu, career disappointments and outsider status of, 22, 43–47, 58
as lao dou, 53, 286n147
pihuang sister-in-law operas and, 226
playhouses, efforts to forbid attendance at, 71–76, 289n31
salon performances and, 102
Old Talk about the Pear Garden (Liyuan jiuhua) (Wu Tao), 102
One Hundred Jingles for the City of Yan (Zha Kui, ca. 1800), 63
opera in Qing Beijing (1770–1900), 1–14, 237–46
The Garden of Turquoise and Jade (Feicui yuan), 12, 145–74 (see also Garden of Turquoise and Jade, The)
genres of, 12, 115–41 (see also genres of opera)
guidebook literature, 9–11, 17–60 (see also flower registers or huapu)
(p.360) “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 13, 175–235 (see also “I, Sister-in-Law” operas)
late Ming intellectual concerns and practices, survival of, 10
Qing court's eventual co-optation of, 242–46 (see also Qing court)
resistance, as site of, 237–42
scholarly approaches to, 3, 5–9
sentimentality and sensationalism in (see sentimentality and sensationalism)
significance of, 2–5, 9–10, 13–14, 237
social chaos, associated with, 1–2, 63, 116–17, 125, 126
Opium War, 295n115
Orchid Pavilion Collection (Wang Xizhi), 47, 283n111
Orgel, Stephen, 160
Outer City, Beijing
playhouses restricted to, 69–74, 70, 71
salon performances in, 98
Painted Boats of Yangzhou (Yangzhou huafang lu) (Li Dou), 211–12
Palace of the Dawn Star (Weiyang tian) (Zhu Suchen), 145–46, 148, 155
Palace of Eternal Youth (Changshen dian) (Hong Sheng), 205
Patriarch of Zhaozhou (Congshen), 309n1
Peking opera, 6, 140, 237, 276n19
pihuang, relationship to, 140
Peony Pavilion, The (Mudan ting) (Tang Xianzu), 78, 206, 207, 298n141, 315n59, 316n76, 318n96, 331n3
Petty Historian of the Approaching Vernal Pavilion, 41
Petty Historian Who Feasts on Flowers, 29, 40
pihuang opera, 12, 217–18
defined, 250
“I, Sister-in-Law” productions (see under “I, Sister-in-Law” operas)
playhouse performances, nature of, 83
Qing court
appeal of pihuang for, 117, 134–40, 218, 226, 235, 244–45
court dramas influencing pihuang, 218, 327n128
status of, 133–34
as type of huabu, 119
Peking opera, relationship to, 140
xipi and erhuang, relationship to, 128
pin (evaluative classification), concept of, 21, 24–25, 29
Pinhua baojian (Chen Sen), 280n53, 298n144, 307n94
Plaks, Andrew, 180
playhouses, 64–65, 67–87
audience-actor dynamics in, 66, 83, 84–86
civil service examinees at, 76–78
commercial nature of, 67
development of, 67–68
layout and seating at, 18–20, 19, 78–82, 79, 80
Outer City, efforts to restrict to, 69–74, 70, 71
performances, nature of, 83–84
price of attending, 81–82, 86–87, 291–92n6873
public and private life, opera as border crossing between, 66, 114, 116–17, 174
Qing court
efforts at regulation, 11, 64–65, 69–76, 235, 240–41
eventual co-optation of commercial theater by, 242–46, 331n7
resistance, as site of, 237–42
salon performances
closing of playhouse due to, 104, 299n156
rental of playhouse for, 98
social and ethnic mixing at, 11, 64, 65–67, 78, 82, 240–41
tea gardens as, 67, 68, 287n6
terms for, 67
winehouses
possibly deriving from opera patronage at, 67, 287n164
proximity to, 18, 53, 69
women allowed to attend, 113, 292n77
women forbidden from attending, 64–65, 82–83, 87
Playwatching Adept, 133
Playwatching Journal (Guanju riji), 69, 89, 161, 164, 165, 166, 205–7, 210, 212, 324n88
(p.361) Plum in the Golden Vase, The (Jin Ping Mei), 102, 184–85, 195
Polachek, James, 44, 47
Precious Mirror for Ranking Boy Actresses, A (Pinhua baojian) (Chen Sen), 42, 59, 78, 86, 103, 104, 133, 172, 211
Precious Raft of Exalted Peace, The (Shengping baofa), 214
Prince of Ning (Zhu Chenhao), rebellion of (1519), 150
private performances. See salon performances
public and private life, opera as border crossing between, 66, 114, 116–17, 174
public sphere, concept of, 6–8, 238
“pure-singing” (qingchang) style of Kun opera, 129–30
Qi Biaojia, 97, 185, 320–21n28, 321n37
Qi Rushan, 331n1
Qian Decang, 105–6
Qian Qiaoling, 166
Qianlong emperor, 73, 92, 106, 107, 109, 127, 134, 164, 213, 300n168, 302n20, 326n115
qiao shoes, 124, 138, 229, 303n38
Qing court, 4–5.
actors employed by, 106, 111–12, 119, 121, 134
apartheid regime, Qing state as, 68–69
commercial actors used by, 136–40
eventual co-optation of commercial theater by, 242–46, 331n7
The Garden of Turquoise and Jade script, double marriage preserved in, 167–69, 170
genres of opera, exertion of control over (see under genres of opera)
household troupes, discouragement of, 68
I, Sister-in-Law operas
appropriation and retelling of, 212–17
commercial versions of, 226, 235
proscription of, 211, 213
Nanfu, 106, 119, 121, 135
pihuang opera
court dramas influencing, 218, 327n128
court sensibilities embracing, 117, 134–40, 218, 226, 235, 244–45
playhouses, efforts to control, 11, 64–65, 69–76, 235, 240–41
reign periods for dynasty, xi
salon performances
efforts to control, 68, 98–99, 113
at imperial palace, 65, 66–67, 106–12, 110, 111, 300n169
scholarly research on opera, patronage of, 121–24
Shengping shu, reorganization of Nanfu into, 135
social-leveling agenda of, 331n7
state power, opera patronage as sign of, 119–22, 120,
temple fairs, efforts to control, 90, 91–92, 95–97
venues generally, efforts to control, 11, 64–65, 112–14
Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan) story cycle, seditious overtones of, 212–14 See also imperial palace
qing, cult of, 33–34, 155, 158, 173, 208, 234, 280n49, 313n39
Qing dynasty, opera in Beijing during. See opera in Qing Beijing
qingchang (“pure-singing”) style of Kun opera, 129–30
qinqiang, 49, 57, 84, 115, 116, 119, 124–28, 129, 250, 305n56
qiu dan (subtlety), 51
Qu Yuan, 47, 238nn110
Qupin (Lü Tiancheng), 319n15
Rabinow, Paul, 39
Raconteur of the Western Hillocks (Xicheng waishi), 27, 46, 47, 50, 77
Realm of Many Fragrances, The (Zhongxiang guo), 40
Rebellion of the Three Feudatories (1683), 120
Recluse of the Drunken Bamboo, 41
Record of Appraising Flowers of the Yan Stage, A (Yantai jiaohua lu), 41
Record of Cherished Flowers (Huaifang ji), 30
Record of Collected Fragments, A (Pianyu ji), 43, 44
Record of Remembered Dreams of the Capital, A (Chunming mengyu lu) (Sun Chengze), 36
Record of Southern Flowers in the Mist, A (Nanbu yanhua lu) (attrib. Yan Shigu, ca. 581–645), 26, 278n18
Record of Tear Stains from the Golden Stage, A (Jintai canlei ji) (Zhang Jiliang, 1829), 32, 36–37, 38–39, 40, 44
(p.362) Record of Viewing Flowers in the Capital (Chang'an kanhua ji) (Yang Maojian, 1837), 28, 132–33
Record of Viewing Flowers in the Precinct of the Throne, A (Rixia kanhua ji) (Xiao tiedi daoren, 1803), 29, 316n71
Record of the Water Margin, The (Shuihu ji) (Xu Zichang, ca. 1607–1623), 176, 178–82, 185, 186, 190–92, 201, 203–4, 209, 213, 214–15, 319n15
Register of the Pure and Loyal, A (Qingzhong pu) (Zhu Suchen and Li Yu), 155–56
resistance, opera as site of, 237–42
Reunion of Ten Thousand Leagues, A (Wanli yuan) (Li Yu), 148–49
Righteous Hero, The (Yixia ji) (Shen Jing, after 1607), 89, 176, 178, 182–86, 190–92, 196, 198, 201, 204–6, 212–16, 224, 225, 320n25, 327n126
righteous servant characters, 159, 313n43
Rixia jiuwen (Zhu Yizun, 1688), 280n58
Ruan Dacheng, 97
Ruan Ji, 47
Rulan Chao Pien, 302n23
Sacrificing Two Heads, Wu Song Exacts Vengeance (Shuang xiantou Wu Song da baochou), 182
salon performances (tanghui), 65, 97–112
actor-audience dynamic, 101–4
circumstances and conduct of, 99–104
closing of playhouse due to, 104, 299n156
defined, 97
ethnicity issues, 98, 102, 298n144
at imperial palace, 65, 66–67, 106–12, 110, 111, 300n169
in Inner and Outer Cities, 98
male connoisseurs at, 104–5
private or household troupes, 68, 97–99, 287–88n10
Qing court
efforts to control salon performances by, 68, 98–99, 113
imperial palace, private performances at, 65, 66–67, 106–12, 110, 111, 300n169
range in scale of, 98, 99, 100
remuneration for performances at, 101–4
rental of playhouse for, 98
social homogeneity of audience at, 98, 297n133
timing restrictions, lack of, 104, 299n158
women's attendance at, 65, 99, 102, 104–6, 113
Sanduo Troupe, 91, 165, 166, 206, 212, 305n58
Sanqing Troupe, 127–28, 136, 137, 161–63, 162, 226, 230, 249, 253n7
scholarly research on opera, court patronage of, 121–24
Scholars, The (Rulin waishi), 103
Scholars-and-Beauties Peony Pavilion (Caizi-Jiaren Mudan ting), 299n160, 318n100
School of Mind (xinxue), 157, 312n3334
scions' tales
“The Lament of the Fake Lao Dou” (Jia lao dou tan), 119
“Pleasures in the Family Garden” (Jiayuan le), 99–103
on Temple to the Divine Agent (Lingguanmiao) incident (1838), 93–95
“The Wealthy Young Mistress Goes to the Holy Festival Plays” (Kuoda nainai ting shanhui xi), 95–96
sentimentality and sensationalism
The Garden of Turquoise and Jade on commercial stage, 148, 163–65, 169, 172
genre delineation and control and, 8
in “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 191–92, 196, 203–7, 232
importance of, 8
public and private life, opera as border crossing between, 66, 114, 116–17, 174
venue control and, 66
sexuality.
companionate marriage, 167, 299n160
courtesan/actress texts, borrowed discourse of huapu from, 21, 25–28, 31–33
cult of qing, 33–34, 155, 158, 173, 208, 234, 280n49, 313n39
dan actors and sex market, 31–34, 51, 280n50, 285n132
in I, Sister-in-Law operas (see under “I, Sister-in-Law” operas)
Kun opera, romantic and sexually explicit plots in, 125
Shang Wei, 318n100
Shanghai, as opera center, 139
(p.363) Shen Defu, 33
Shen Jing, 97, 185, 186, 321n43
Shen Shixing, 97
Shen Zijin, 189–90, 196, 327n126
Shengping shu (Bureau of Ascendant Peace), 81, 135–37
Shu Fa, 149–50, 310n16
Shu Fen, 149, 310n15
Sikong Tu, 277n10
Sixi Troupe, 136, 165, 226, 249
Sketches from a Life of Watching Theater (Chen Moxiang, 1930), 175
So Hosu, 108
Sommer, Matthew, 9, 235
Song Yu (poet), 47, 283–84n112113
Song Yulin, 165
Southern Song dynasty, catalogues or registers of collectibles during, 24
Southern Story of the Western Wing (Nan Xixiang ji), 298n147
Spring Purification Association (zhanchun ji), 44, 47
Stallybrass, Peter, 164
Stars of Loyalty and Righteousness (The Plan of the Stars of Loyalty and Righteousness or Zhongyi xuantu) (Zhou Xiangyu and Zou Jinsheng, ca. mid-1740s), 213–17, 223, 326n115, 327n128
Story of the Western Chamber (Xixiang ji) drama cycle, 163, 312n35
String of Rough Pearls, A (1809), 17
Study of Ancient Accounts from the Precinct of the Throne, A (Rixia jiuwen kao) (1785), 36, 44, 280n58
su and ya, 130–31, 315n59
Su Shi, 30
Sui Yangdi, 26
Sun Chengze, 36
Sun Qi, 21, 278n20
Suzhou dialect of clown / character parts
in The Garden of Turquoise and Jade, 169–71
in “I, Sister-in-Law” operas, 192, 201–2
Jiangnan elites and, 171, 202
pihuang operas abandoning, 219
Suzhou writers' group, 145, 148, 155–60, 309n5, 312n31, 314n50
Swatek, Catherine, 315n59, 324–25n89, 331n3
Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), 10, 139, 234, 243–45, 331n7
Taizhou School, 157
Tan Xinpei, 136
Tang Xianzu, 306n75, 315n59
tanghui. See salon performances
teahouses and tea gardens
playhouses and, 67, 68, 287n6
storytelling teahouses, 82, 89, 287n6
teahouse culture, 7–8, 287n6
temple fairs and temple stages, 65, 87–97
community and religious/ritual aspects of, 65, 67
content and style of performances, 89–91, 96
dan actors at, 96–97
emergence of, 67
festivals and ritual calendar of performances, 87–89
“I, Sister-in-Law” operas performed at, 212
Qing court's efforts to regulate, 65, 92–95
social and ethnic mixing at, 65, 87, 91–95
on temple grounds without permanent stages, 88, 89
troupes performing at, 89–91
wealthy patrons sponsoring plays at, 295n106
women's attendance of performances at, 90, 91–92, 95–97, 113
Temple to the Divine Agent (Lingguanmiao), 1838 incident at, 92–95
“tent-arena” (goulan) theaters (1050–1450), 67
Theiss, Janet, 9, 331n5
Thorn Hairpin, The (Jingchai ji), 89
Three Kingdoms saga (Dingzhi chunqiu), 106
“Three Top Candidates Make the Grade, The” (San yuan jidi), 101, 297–98n140
Thunder-Wind Pagoda (Leifeng ta), 206
Tianning Monastery, 91, 295n108
Tieqiao shanren, 57
Timovsky, Egor F., 289n31
Tongzhi emperor, 244, 245
Treatise of the Three Kingdoms, 214
Tu Long, 97
unicorn, capture of, 38, 281n70
urban memoir / civic guidebook literature, borrowed discourse of huapu from, 21–22, 35–39
(p.364) variety plays (zaju), 157, 182, 199, 249
variety-skit houses (zashua guan), 72, 77, 82, 84
Vast-Sky Pagoda (Haotian ta), 298n148
venues, 11, 63–114.
Qing court's efforts to control, 11, 64–65, 112–14
social and ethnic mixing at, 65, 112–13, 240–41
“tent-arena” (goulan) theaters (1050–1450), 67 See also playhouses; salon performances; temple fairs and temple stages
Viewing Flowers in the Precinct of the Throne (Rixia kanhua ji, 1803), 40–41, 46, 51–52, 57, 208–9
violence and sex in “I, Sister-in-Law”
operas. See under “I, Sister-in-Law”
operas
Volpp, Sophie, 33
Wang Da, 74
Wang Jide, 185
Wang Wenzhi, 131, 306n84
Wang Xizhi, 47, 283n11011
Water Margin rebels, legends regarding, 106, 178
Weber, Max, 7
Wei Changsheng, 124, 125–27, 128, 304n53, 306n69
Wei Liangfu, 118
Wei Zhongxian, 156
Wen Zhengming, 97
White, Allon, 164
winehouses
lao dou and dan actors at, 18, 53–57, 285–86n144
number of, and frequency of visits by bannermen and officials to, 73
payment for actors' entertainment services at, 104
playhouses possibly deriving from opera patronage at, 67, 287n164
prohibition of bannermen from entering, 289n24
proximity to playhouses, 18, 53, 69
With Only a Broken Staff, Wu Song Fights a Tiger (Zhe daner Wu Song da hu) (Hongzi Li Er), 182
women.
attendance at opera performances by The Garden of Turquoise and Jade, female audience for, 316n69
playhouses, women allowed to attend, 113, 292n77
playhouses, women forbidden from attending, 64–65, 82–83, 87
salon performances, 65, 99, 102, 104–6, 113
temple performances, 90, 91–92, 95–97, 113
companionate marriage, 167, 299n160
courtesan/actress texts, borrowed discourse of huapu from, 21, 25–28, 31–33
elimination as actresses from palace performance, 119 See also gender and gender representation
Wu Cuncun, 20
Wu Tao, 102, 104, 231–32
Wu Zhensheng, 320n28
Xia Tingshi, 27
Xianfeng emperor, 135–36, 244
xianggong, 32, 33, 279n48
Xiao tiedi daoren (The Latter-Day Adept of the Iron Flute), 128, 316n71
Xiaosheng (Empress Dowager), 107
xinxue (School of Mind), 157, 312n3334
xipi, 119, 128, 305n63
Xu Daling, 237
Xu Zichang, 180–81, 186, 192, 201, 203, 214, 319n15
Xue Dan, 148, 314n48
ya and su, 130–31, 315n59
yabu opera, 118–19, 250. See also Kun opera
yamen runners, 81, 92, 94, 95, 138, 150, 152, 220, 238
Yan Shigu, 26, 278n18
Yang Cuiyan, 44–45, 77, 281n86, 282–83n98100
Yang Guiyun, 227–28
Yang Maojian
Assorted Notes toward a Dream of Splendors Past (Menghua suobu) (1842), 36, 37, 38, 40, 45, 54
(p.365) as connoisseur, 45, 47–48, 51, 52
as huabu author, 32, 36, 37, 38, 282n89, 283n105
huabu, enthusiasm for, 133
on lao dou, 54, 56–57
on playhouses, 73, 78, 83, 84
Record of Viewing Flowers in the Capital (Chang'an kanhua ji) (1837), 28, 132–33
Yangzhou, opera in, 5
Yao Ying, 44
Ye Tang, 117, 129–31, 306n75, 306n79, 306n83
Ye Xiaoqing, 137
Yi Lansheng, 133
Yinlu (editor-in-chief of All Nine Modes), 122, 123, 303n25
Yiyang, 91, 116, 126, 128, 129, 250, 301n2
Yongqing Troupe, 127
Yongzheng emperor, 73
youwu, 24–25, 30, 277n11
Yu Huai, 27, 278n20
Yu Ji, 43–44
Yu Xiangdou, 321n35
Yu Zhi, 211, 245
Yu Zhibin, 305n68
Yuan drama, 157, 313n36
Yuan dynasty, 178
Yuan Haowen, 43, 282n90
Yuan Zhen, 43, 282n90
zaju (variety plays), 157, 182, 199, 249
zashua guan (variety-skit houses), 72, 77, 82, 84
Zha Kui, 63
Zha playhouse (Zhalou), 77, 290n52
Zhang Dai, 33, 97
Zhang Jiliang
as connoisseur, 44, 45, 47
on court regulation of qinqiang, 305n56
on dan actors, 84–85
The Garden of Turquoise and Jade and, 164
as huapu author, 36–37, 38–39, 280n66, 282n98, 283n105, 285n132
on lao dou, 54, 55, 57
A Record of Tear Stains from the Golden Stage (Jintai canlei ji) (1829), 32, 36–37, 38–39, 40, 44
Zhang Zhao, 214, 326n115
Zhao Qiugu, 26–27, 28, 278n20
Zhao Yi, 107–8, 125
Zhaodai xiaoshao (Heavenly Music of an Illustrious Age), 327n128
Zhaolian, 108, 125, 132–33, 213–14
Zheng Zhenduo, 320–21n28
Zhengde emperor, 156, 312n30
Zhou Shunchang, 156
Zhou Xiangyu, 122
Zhu Chenhao (Prince of Ning), rebellion of (1519), 150
Zhu Jiajin, 136
Zhu Yizun, 280n58
Zou Jinsheng, 122