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From Frontier Policy to Foreign PolicyThe Question of India and the Transformation of Geopolitics in Qing China$
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Matthew Mosca

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780804782241

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804782241.001.0001

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(p.1) Introduction
From Frontier Policy to Foreign Policy
Stanford University Press

This book determines two major changes that occurred between the start of 1750, when the Qianlong emperor brought the empire to the height of its power, and when Qing weakness in the face of European empires became starkly evident. It employs the word “India” to refer to the region more commonly known in current scholarship as South Asia. Changes in geographic and strategic thinking permitted a unified foreign policy. Qing policy had varied from that of its neighbors. The most crucial variable in Qing foreign relations was whether the court and private scholars considered themselves to be facing an assortment of discrete, localized challenges, or a single, integrated crisis involving the empire as a whole. Frontier policy was supported by an assumption of minimalism. An overview of the chapters included in this book is given.

Keywords:   Qianlong emperor, Qing, India, foreign policy, frontier policy, minimalism, South Asia, foreign relations

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