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Middle East AuthoritarianismsGovernance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran$
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Steven Heydemann and Reinoud Leenders

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780804783019

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804783019.001.0001

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Authoritarian Resilience and International Linkages In Iran and Syria

Authoritarian Resilience and International Linkages In Iran and Syria

Chapter:
(p.222) 10 Authoritarian Resilience and International Linkages In Iran and Syria
Source:
Middle East Authoritarianisms
Author(s):
Anoushiravan Ehteshami, Raymond Hinnebusch, Heidi Huuhtanen, Paola Raunio, Maaike Warnaar, Tina Zintl
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:10.11126/stanford/9780804783019.003.0010

This chapter explores the impact of external linkages on regime resilience in Syria and Iran, concentrating on the decade from 9/11 to 2010, a period that provides rich opportunities for analysis of this phenomenon. The power of authoritarian regimes relied on their management of participation pressures. The internationalization of coalitions tried to widen contestation. The Syrian Ba'th regime has always depended on foreign policy for much of its capital. Economic liberalization was congruous with a simultaneous incremental expansion of elite-level contestation and shrinkage of popular inclusion and, far from driving democratization, sustained authoritarian adaptation in the short run. External financial and political resources initially had similar benefits for authoritarian resilience in Syria and Iran. Both regimes presented rebellions, but their locations in opposing sectors of society were indicative of the differential effect of external resources on the restructuring of their social bases.

Keywords:   Syria, Iran, authoritarian regimes, Syrian Ba'th, foreign policy, economic liberalization, social bases

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