Key cultural and political groups displayed a great deal of internal unity in their approach to the urban landscape due to their adherence to the same frameworks of interpretation and political interests. This is not to imply that humans agency was irrelevant. Individuals and groups created and altered these frameworks, and made decisions about how to apply them to the city. The triad of place-based meaning, spatial/formal relations and representation was consistently significant, albeit with vastly different levels of importance attached to each on a case-by-case basis. The differential treatment of memorials, monumental architecture, vernacular buildings, public spaces, and city plans suggests that they differed in how they conveyed cultural meaning. The construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 made an emphatic statement about the GDR that would always stand as a counterpoint to its other building projects.
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