This chapter focuses on Franciscan temporary missions known as misiones populares, which were aimed at eradicating what the missionaries viewed as deviant practices and to reform the customs of Catholics in communities. On the basis of the foundational documents of the colegios de propaganda fide, it is clear that the conversion of Catholics was paramount for Franciscan missionaries. The chapter first offers some conceptual clarification regarding religious conversion from a Franciscan perspective before discussing the techniques and methods of the Franciscan missionary program of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the Spanish Atlantic world. It also considers the religious culture that stemmed from missionary activities within the frame of global salvation and shows that all Franciscan colleges carried out itinerant missions in their own dioceses along with neighboring bishoprics and, in some cases, distant dioceses, with help from bishops and archbishops.
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