Following the defeat of France by Germany in 1940, the Ligue des droits de l'homme (League of the Rights of Man) ceased all operations and its members went their separate ways. Many of the League's leaders, including Albert Bayet, Paul Rivet, and Marc Rucart, contributed in one way or another to the Resistance or the Free French. Others, such as Elie Reynier, Salomon Grumbach, and Paul Langevin, were either jailed or interned under the Vichy regime. However, the decision of some of the former League leaders to collaborate with the new regime came as a surprise. After all, the policies of the Vichy regime, including its anti-Semitism and discriminatory measures against Jews, were in stark contrast to the values and principles that the League was presumed to stand for.
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