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Between Foreigners and ShiʿisNineteenth-Century Iran and its Jewish Minority$
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Daniel Tsadik

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780804754583

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804754583.001.0001

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Shiʿi Legal Attitudes Toward the Jews

Shiʿi Legal Attitudes Toward the Jews

Chapter:
(p.15) One Shiʿi Legal Attitudes Toward the Jews
Source:
Between Foreigners and Shiʿis
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:10.11126/stanford/9780804754583.003.0002

The Quran treats Jews and other non-Muslims as ahl al-kitab (“people of the Book”) together with Christians, as banu-israil (the children of Israel), or as yahud (Jews). Aside from the Quran and the Sunni hadith literature, the Sunni treatment of the people of the Book is based on the so-called Pact of 'Umar. During the reign of the second Caliph, 'Umar b. al-Khattab (d. 644), the people of the Book was granted protection (dhimmah) under the shelter of Islam in exchange for their submission to Muslim rule, their recognition of Islam's superiority, and their dishonor. The dhimmis (people of the Book who live under Muslim rule) would lose this protection and receive punishment if they violated the clauses of the dhimmah Pact, perceived as a contract with Muslims. This chapter, which examines the Imami Shi'is' legal attitudes toward the Jews in nineteenth-century Iran, outlines the general structure and meaning of Sunni dhimmah regulations and views concerning the Jews. It also looks at some of the Shi'i laws regarding the Jews and other people of the Book.

Keywords:   Jews, Iran, Quran, non-Muslims, people of Book, dhimmis, dhimmah, Muslims, laws

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