The general spirit of the dhimmah concept became fully ingrained in many parts of Muslim society in Iran during the nineteenth century. The Jews and other dhimmis were considered secondary to Muslims and had to endure discrimination, persecution, humiliation, and other forms of abuse during the early Qajar period (1786–1848). Some Jews were forced to convert to Islam as a result of these ordeals. Although pressure from other countries and Western Jewry led to some changes in the Jews' political status and their daily experience during the reign of Nasir al-Din Shah, there was little cause for optimism. Fearing social resentment and riots, the government did not fully implement the Shah's policies to improve the plight of the Jews. In other words, the Jews' social and religious status essentially remained the same.
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