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The Agony of Greek Jews, 1940-1945$
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Steven B. Bowman

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780804755849

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804755849.001.0001

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Freedom or Death

Freedom or Death

(p.138) Eight Freedom or Death
The Agony of Greek Jews, 1940-1945
Stanford University Press

Greek Resistance during World War II involved Greeks, both Christians and Jews, along with American, British, and Palestinian Jewish forces. This chapter, which examines the complexity of the Greek Resistance in terms of their effect on the Jewish communities in Greece, looks at the separate elements that participated in the Resistance and their respective attitudes toward the Jews in Greece, along with the role of the Greek Jews in the Resistance. The Greek Resistance to the Axis began when Ioannis Metaxas refused to surrender to Italian demands in the pre-dawn ultimatum of October 28, 1940. In saying “No!” to the Axis, the Greeks stood shoulder to shoulder with a beleaguered Great Britain, but were eventually overrun by Nazi forces in April 1941. The Greek Resistance was fought on a number of levels according to the locale. Crete, for example, opted for the so-called “Freedom or Death.” There was also resistance in the mountains, led by free Greeks, and in the cities, led by EAM (Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo) and its fighting arm ELAS (Ethniko Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos).

Keywords:   Greek Resistance, Axis, World War II, Jews, Greece, Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo, ELAS, Ioannis Metaxas

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