This chapter examines the representation of animal spirits in setsuwa focusing on foxes, monkeys, a tree with bird spirits, snakes, wild boars, raccoons, dogs, and tengu. It suggests that while the behaviors and functions of various animal spirits overlap with each other and with those of oni, each animal spirit has idiosyncrasies affecting its role as a grotesque representation. The chapter also argues that the depiction of animal spirits reveals the fragility of people, particularly in their attempts to conquer fears and illusions.
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