This chapter summarizes the preceding discussions and presents some final thoughts. It argues that the Transylvanian Question has been neither an ideology nor merely an instrument for the expression of nationalism and nationalist goals, for it has subsumed and colored nationalism as readily as it did anti-Semitism and political extremism. The Transylvanian Question has also given shape to an idea of what Europe does in this region, and “Europe” has in turn become the object of a new consensus, one over which the right and left are fighting new battles to determine who is more “European” and what that means. Participating in a European project thus has become part of the nationalist repertoire—or rather, being “European” has become a constituent component of being Hungarian or Romanian. This transformation from Transylvania to Europe as the locus of political consensus emerged from World War II, when the various strands of the old consensus on the Transylvanian Question converged on the position that the question could be resolved only within the framework of a “new Europe”.
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