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Culture and Management in the Americas$
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Alfredo Behrens

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780804760140

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804760140.001.0001

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Who's Who on the Playing Field

Who's Who on the Playing Field

(p.161) Chapter 11 Who's Who on the Playing Field
Culture and Management in the Americas
Stanford University Press

This chapter examines the collective attitudes that shape national character factors and the factors underlying cross-cultural management, focusing on the works of Shalom Schwartz, Geert Hofstede, Mary Douglas, and Fons Trompenaars. It discusses Schwartz's list of seven values categories: harmony, egalitarianism, intellectual autonomy, affective autonomy, mastery, hierarchy, and conservatism (which he later termed embeddedness). It then looks at Hofstede's surveys aimed at eliciting personal values regarding work environments. Hofstede came up with five dimensions of culture: power distance, individualism and collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation. In her 1978 work, Cultural Bias, Douglas, a cultural anthropologist, argued that people in most societies resort to four states of mind in order to comprehend the natural, the social, and the supernatural worlds: individualism, hierarchy, fatalism, and egalitarianism. She offered two dimensions rendering four cultural biases: the issue of belonging and the issue of rules of behavior. Trompenaars, for his part, claimed that each culture seeks to solve three basic dilemmas: relationships with others, the handling of time, and relationship with the environment.

Keywords:   cross-cultural management, attitudes, national character, Shalom Schwartz, Geert Hofstede, Mary Douglas, Fons Trompenaars, values, culture, egalitarianism

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