This chapter explores how cultural differences affect management, beginning with a brief contemporary analysis of leadership issues pertaining to the European roots of the New World. It discusses the results of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project, initiated in 1991 by Wharton professor Robert House to look at leadership and organizational issues. The GLOBE project carried out a worldwide survey and identified six attributes of effective leadership as perceived by middle managers: charismatic, team oriented, self-protective, participative, humane, and autonomous. The chapter also examines business leadership in Europe; and Latin America. It focuses on the importance of paternalism in Latin America, its impact on populism, and how populism, in turn, influences the expression of charisma. It argues that the prevailing views on leadership in Latin America are different from those in the United States and that those differences can be attributed to culture.
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