This chapter discusses the history of Argentina, beginning with personalities who had significant impact on the formation of the nation such as Mariano Moreno, Juan Manuel de Rosas, Juan Bautista Alberdi, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, and Leopoldo Lugones. It looks at Sarmiento's efforts on behalf of education and how it contributed to what Argentina is today. Sarmiento was Latin America's foremost educator who paved the way for four Nobel laureates to Argentina's educational credit. A fifth Nobel Prize, awarded to Adolfo Pérez Esquivel for Peace in 1980, owes its differential solely to his own personal courage in the war against the nastier side of Argentina's cultural heritage. The chapter also examines how the country experienced stagnation and social strife, the campaign for unification, the war between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, the impact of immigration on Argentina, and the regime of Juan Domingo Perón and his wife Evita.
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