This chapter discusses the history of Brazil and argues that it was not colonized but kept, drawing attention from Portugal only when its interests in Asia were challenged by competitors. In addition, the royal family's move to Brazil hampered Brazil's political development. Brazil's sizable foreign manufacturing industry has mostly failed at exporting manufactured goods, which this chapter contends is the result of the lack of a symbolic pact that would lead Brazilians to unite around a common goal and thus integrate themselves into the concept of a nation and build an effective judiciary that might free them from patron-client relationships. Like Argentina and the United States, Brazil's main characteristics were inadvertently nurtured by their forefathers: nations of small farmers in North America and of large landholdings and absentee landlords in South America. This chapter also looks at education in Brazil, along with elites and populism, and the country's search for national identity.
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