The coup d'état brought numerous changes to the National Steel Company (Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional; CSN) and transformed industrial relations in Brazil. CSN's directors were replaced with new ones, most of them company veterans, all engineers, who opposed the erosion of managerial authority in the early 1960s. General Oswaldo Pinto da Veiga, the company's former vice-president (1962) and director for raw materials (1962–1963), was appointed president, taking over Admiral Lúcio Martins Meira, while coup plotter Mauro Mariano da Silva was retained as industrial director. The military cracked down on the labor union and prohibited union elections until 1966. This chapter outlines that lessons can be learned from the history of industrial labor at CSN and its steel mill in Volta Redonda.
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