This chapter provides a description of the Underground press. The best-known Underground institutions, namely International Times (IT), OZ, UFO, Spontaneous Underground, Middle Earth, the Sams brothers' Ceres Grain Shop, and Indica Books and Gallery, were all grounded in central and west London. The Underground press in London was at its inception profoundly obligated to live up to the personal effect of “an army of expatriate Americans wandering, active” throughout Western Europe in the early and mid 1960s. The Underground press boomed in London for only a comparatively brief few years before it went through a quite rapid decay and collapse. It went down in the early 1970s because of the waning of the youth culture that supported it, aggressive and expensive prosecutions by the authorities, and the commercial co-optation of the more viable elements by corporate publishing.
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