This concluding chapter focuses on the legacy of the Lower Yangzi chambers of commerce. The network revolution led by these chambers of commerce and other new associations in late Qing and early Republican China constituted one of the most substantial and significant aspects of sociopolitical change. It helped integrate elite merchants and more diverse social forces, including the populace, through the expansion of increasingly institutionalized networks and enabled these social forces, especially new elite associations, to exercise unprecedented influence on state politics through multiform interactions with the latter.
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