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Improving Learning EnvironmentsSchool Discipline and Student Achievement in Comparative Perspective$
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Richard Arum and Melissa Velez

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780804778039

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804778039.001.0001

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Class and Racial Differences in U.S. School Disciplinary Environments

Class and Racial Differences in U.S. School Disciplinary Environments

(p.278) CHAPTER NINE Class and Racial Differences in U.S. School Disciplinary Environments
Improving Learning Environments

Richard Arum

Melissa Velez

Stanford University Press

This chapter examines the moderately high levels of victimization in schools reported by students in the United States. For American students, school climate measures are strongly associated with student academic achievement, after accounting for social background, prior test score performance, and other factors. Striking differences exist between African American and white students' academic performance and exposure to school discipline environments. In schools that have greater levels of discipline, African American students learn at rates comparable to whites. Since the expansion of student rights in the late 1960s and early 1970s, forms of school discipline in the United States have changed. Teachers report that the threat of potential lawsuits affects how they discipline students in their classrooms. U.S. students have been afforded unparalleled explicit legal rights that constrain traditional forms of school discipline.

Keywords:   student victimization, US school discipline, school climate, American students, African American student, white student

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