This chapter examines the two revolutions—the political and the insurgency—that engulfed New Spain in 1810 and that occurred almost simultaneously. The political revolution sought to change the worldwide Hispanic Monarchy into a modern nation-state with a representative government for all parts of the Spanish Nation, as the monarchy was now called. Elections for deputies to the Cortes were held by ayuntamientos (city governments) throughout New Spain. Nevertheless, before the novohispano deputies could depart for the Cortes that met in Cádiz, a great insurgency erupted in the Bajío that, while advocating the creation of a congress of cities to govern New Spain in the name of the king, relied on force to secure local autonomy or home rule. These two overlapping processes influenced and altered one another in a variety of ways for more than a decade. Neither can be understood in isolation.
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