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The Political Economy of Environmental Justice$
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H. Spencer Banzhaf

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780804780612

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804780612.001.0001

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Spatial Patterns in Regulatory Enforcement

Spatial Patterns in Regulatory Enforcement

Local Tests of Environmental Justice

(p.225) 9 Spatial Patterns in Regulatory Enforcement
The Political Economy of Environmental Justice

Ronald J. Shadbegian

Wayne B. Gray

Stanford University Press

This chapter considers the behavior of regulators in the executive branch of state governments, looking at enforcement activities taking place in different locations. It examines how intensively regulators monitor and enforce regulations at individual facilities as a function of the people who live near those facilities. It analyzes regulatory activity at 1,616 manufacturing plants located near four large US cities: Los Angeles, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Columbus, Ohio; and Houston, Texas. It looks at two sets of demographic variables: one representing groups expected to have relatively high sensitivity to air pollution (children and elders), and the other representing disadvantaged groups (the poor and minorities).

Keywords:   state governments, executive branch, environmental regulatory activity, federalist system, air pollution

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