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Secret Intelligence in the European States System, 1918-1989$
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Jonathan Haslam and Karina Urbach

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780804783590

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: September 2014

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804783590.001.0001

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Seeking a Scapegoat

Seeking a Scapegoat

Intelligence and Grand Strategy in France, 1919–1940

(p.81) 3 Seeking a Scapegoat
Secret Intelligence in the European States System, 1918-1989

Stephen A. Schuker

Stanford University Press

In Stephen A. Schuker’s view, only when material military power stands in balance can intelligence make a difference; and in 1940, along with much else in Paris, French intelligence failed. France, of course, surrendered very early on; arguably due to deep-seated problems within French society that Hitler sensed instinctively. Was it therefore a surprise that French intelligence suffered as a consequence? Schuker—a skeptic about the role that intelligence can play in democracies—maintains that intelligence can never be better than the context that confines it and from which it operates.

Keywords:   France, secret intelligence, Maurice Gamelin, Maurice-Henri Gauché, Vichy, édouard Daladier, deuxième bureau

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