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University Expansion in a Changing Global EconomyTriumph of the BRICs?$
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Martin Carnoy, Prashant Loyalka, and Maria Dobryakova

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780804786010

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804786010.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM STANFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.stanford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Stanford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in SSO for personal use.date: 18 February 2020

BRIC Higher Education and Social Equity

BRIC Higher Education and Social Equity

(p.257) 8 BRIC Higher Education and Social Equity
University Expansion in a Changing Global Economy

Martin Carnoy

Prashant Loyalka

Maria Dobryakova

Rafiq Dossani

Isak Froumin

Katherine Kuhns

Jandhyala B. G. Tilak

Rong Wang

Stanford University Press

The chapter examines the complex relationship between higher education expansion and income inequality in developing countries using a standard human capital model and empirical data from the BRIC countries—Brazil, Russia, India, and China. The chapter also estimates the fraction of public subsidies going to various income groups in each country. The findings suggest that mass higher education expansion did not, in and of itself, appear to have decreased income inequality in the BRICs and that students from families at different levels of the income distribution are receiving vastly different benefits from the public financing of higher education, although the benefits received by lower income groups are much greater in Russia than in Brazil. The chapter further assesses the efforts of two of the BRICs, Brazil and India, to offset these inequalities in benefits by implementing affirmative action legislation for access to higher education for low social class groups.

Keywords:   income distribution, higher education, rates of return, quality of education, affirmative action, fiscal policy, distribution of public spending

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