This chapter discusses the ideological foundations for their philanthropic operation developed by the emissaries and their supporters in printed pamphlets, sermons, and other texts. The main challenges that they addressed were competing claims to the munificence of Jewish donors, for example local charitable causes in the diaspora, and the question of the enduring centrality of the Holy Land. The chapter looks at instances of resistance to the emissaries, which were tied to a broader early modern phenomenon of defying rabbinic authority, especially among Western Sephardic Jews. It explores the responses formulated by emissaries and their allies, which contributed to the rise of rabbinic orthodoxy in the early modern period.
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