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Empires of CoalFueling China's Entry into the Modern World Order, 1860-1920$
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Shellen Xiao Wu

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780804792844

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: September 2015

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804792844.001.0001

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Nations, Empires, and Mining Rights, 1895–1911

Nations, Empires, and Mining Rights, 1895–1911

(p.129) 5 Nations, Empires, and Mining Rights, 1895–1911
Empires of Coal

Shellen Xiao Wu

Stanford University Press

Chapter Five examines the late Qing reform of mining laws and the nation-wide movement to reclaim mining rights. In particular, this chapter uses as a case study the example of two German mining companies in Shandong during the colonial period (1898–1914), and the Chinese response to the foreign scramble for mining concessions. Like the geological surveys taking place across the globe during nineteenth and twentieth centuries, mining regulations became a point of tension between colonizers and the colonized. The Chinese promulgation of mining regulations, based on Japanese and European precedents, demonstrate that by the last years of the Qing dynasty, they had joined the ranks of nations that viewed mineral resources as the key to wealth and power.

Keywords:   Xinzheng Reforms, Mackay Treaty, Shandong, mining rights, Zongli Yamen, Yuan Shikai, Zhou Fu, legal reform

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