This chapter examines the strategic interaction dynamics between early Ming China and Korea to evaluate the main theoretical claims advanced in Chapter 2. It argues that the Chinese strategy was initially characterized by expressive hierarchy but was subsequently overshadowed by instrumental hierarchy. On the Korean side, the Koryo dynasty in its final years (1369-92) adopted a strategy of deference while the Choson dynasty in its early years (1392-1424) mainly developed a strategy of identification. Expressive rationality was a key feature of the relationship, though it was not always the dominant one. The correlation between degrees of interest conflict and specific rationality and strategy was unmistakable. Instrumental rationality, of both Chinese and Korean rulers, appeared strongest when interest conflict between the two sides was the sharpest. Conversely, expressive rationality took hold when the relationship was largely cooperative. The chapter concludes that this relationship was largely a relationship of Chinese hierarchic authority.
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