This chapter on Sino-Japanese relations continues to evaluate the relational theory. Similar to the Korean case, instrumental hierarchy and expressive hierarchy characterized a good deal of Chinese strategies toward various Japanese rulers. But this case also differed in that early Ming rulers also adopted a strategy of defensive isolation to protect the Ming coast from the threat of Japanese piracy. The various Japanese rulers, on the other hand, adopted the strategies of exit, access, and deference at different times. Like the Sino-Korean relationship, expressive rationality was an essential but not dominant feature of the relationship. And again, the chapter finds a strong correlation between degrees of interest conflict and specific rationality. Overall, this relationship was not one of Chinese hierarchy. The degree of Chinese authority over Japanese rulers was rather limited.
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