This chapter on Sino-Mongol relations completes empirical evaluation of the relational theory. It shows that Chinese strategies were well accounted for by instrumental hierarchy and expressive hierarchy. The Mongol strategies were mainly characterized by exit and deference. A somewhat surprising finding is that the Chinese strategy of expressive hierarchy was more prominent in this relationship than in the Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese relationships, making expressive rationality a key feature of the relationship. And, although the instrumental rationality of the Mongols was more or less constant, the correlation between degrees of interest conflict and Chinese strategic rationality was as impressive as that in the Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese relationships. On the whole, Chinese rulers possessed a greater degree of hierarchic authority over Mongol chieftains than over Japanese rulers, but it was never as great as their authority over Korean rulers.
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