Participation as Fragmented Inclusion
Chapter 5 shows that the case of participatory planning in León corresponds to the ideal type of fragmented inclusion. The development of such a relationship is explained by two main elements. First, the case points to a tendency of the chosen institutional design to encourage individual forms of mobilization, organized around particularistic demands. Second, the sociopolitical context characterized by a relatively stable situation of political competition among and within parties and by participation of all sectors of civil society tends to encourage development of a partnership understanding of the state’s and society’s roles in the participatory process and to minimize the use of control strategies and open up possibilities for increased autonomy among participants.
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