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The Long Afterlife of Nikkei Wartime Incarceration$
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Karen M. Inouye

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780804795746

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804795746.001.0001

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Retroactive Diplomas and the Value of Education

Retroactive Diplomas and the Value of Education

(p.145) Five Retroactive Diplomas and the Value of Education
The Long Afterlife of Nikkei Wartime Incarceration
Karen M. Inouye
Stanford University Press

Chapter Five examines the value of a college degree, taking as its focus the recipients of retroactive diplomas awarded to Nikkei who were wrongly forced from high schools and institutions of higher education after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Well into their 80s and 90s, these individuals stand to gain nothing material or economic from such action, and yet they have pursued it vigorously. No less important, so have a number of activists, most notably Mary Kitagawa, who helped persuade the University of British Columbia to award degrees to students it had expelled in 1942. The value of education, this chapter argues, lies less in its economic or even intellectual promise than in its political and social potential, particularly when thought of in terms of embodiment.

Keywords:   California Civil Liberties Public Education Act (AB1915), Harry Aoki, Ted Aoki, Charles Kadota, education, Mary Kitagawa, retroactive diplomas, Roy Oshiro, University of British Columbia, University of Washington

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