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Borderland CapitalismTurkestan Produce, Qing Silver, and the Birth of an Eastern Market$
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Kwangmin Kim

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780804799232

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804799232.001.0001

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Capitalist Imperatives and Imperial Connections, 1759–1825

Capitalist Imperatives and Imperial Connections, 1759–1825

(p.47) 2 Capitalist Imperatives and Imperial Connections, 1759–1825
Borderland Capitalism

Kwangmin Kim

Stanford University Press

Through the lives of Ūdui and Osman, a powerful father-son duo who served as native governors in the oasis districts, this chapter examines the formation of the beg client regimes in Eastern Turkestan, the agendas entailed and the consequences that ensued in the aftermath of the Qing conquest in 1759. The Muslim clients appropriated the political and commercial connections provided by the empire to build a highly diversified commercial enterprise comprising three major interlocking sectors—revenue farming, mining, and agriculture. The beg clients took advantage of the empire’s utter dependence on their resource development and radically expanded the scope of their enterprises, building new irrigation facilities and organizing new land and mining development. In order to facilitate this, they also aggressively expanded their private domination of formerly common resources such as wildland and waters, in spite of the resistance from the rural village communities.

Keywords:   Ūdui, native governor, village community, land development, irrigation, revenue farming, oasis economy

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