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Borderland CapitalismTurkestan Produce, Qing Silver, and the Birth of an Eastern Market$
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Kwangmin Kim

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780804799232

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804799232.001.0001

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The “Holy Wars” of the Uprooted, 1826–30

The “Holy Wars” of the Uprooted, 1826–30

(p.90) 3 The “Holy Wars” of the Uprooted, 1826–30
Borderland Capitalism

Kwangmin Kim

Stanford University Press

This chapter examines the careers of Jahangir and Yusuf, two Sufi khwajas who led local resistance against the Qing-beg state in the early nineteenth century. The violent process of beg-initiated agrarian development contributed to the emergence of a rapidly expanding community of refugees in the rugged mountainsides of Pamir and Tianshan. By leading revolts, the two khwaja transformed themselves from being mere émigrés to “organic” religious leaders who represented the mountain people’s energy, frustration, and anxiety. The Qing response, the Nayancheng reform policies (1828 -1829) ironically increased the power of the khwaja coalition. The empire’s military reinforcement increased burdens of taxation and forced labor on the oasis villagers, contributing to an upsurge of number of the refugees. The Qing trade embargo on the Khoqand merchants also forced its ruler, who had been a reliable ally of the Qing, to join forces with the khwajas instead, if reluctantly.

Keywords:   Jahangir khwaja, Yusuf khwaja, refugees, local resistance, Nayancheng, Khoqand

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