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Borderland CapitalismTurkestan Produce, Qing Silver, and the Birth of an Eastern Market$
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Kwangmin Kim

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780804799232

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804799232.001.0001

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The “Just and Liberal Rule” of Zuhūr al-Dīn, 1831–46

The “Just and Liberal Rule” of Zuhūr al-Dīn, 1831–46

(p.126) 4 The “Just and Liberal Rule” of Zuhūr al-Dīn, 1831–46
Borderland Capitalism

Kwangmin Kim

Stanford University Press

Through the examination of Zuhur al-Din, a powerful governor of Kashgar District, this chapter discusses the ironic result of the previous khwaja wars, namely, the emergence of new prosperity in Eastern Turkestani cities. The increased Qing military presence there in the wake of the khwaja wars had the effect of sheltering the begs and their merchant associates from the double threats from the neighboring Central Asian rulers and the refugees. In addition, the Qing military presence also invited a new investment opportunity, official and illicit, by granting permissions for the development of its government land in the oasis. The begs took charge of the tuntian in collaboration with caravan merchants who were also increasingly interested in investing in local land development. However, this new development created its own problems, reproducing into its midst the most politically dangerous elements of its society, the displaced oasis population, local and foreign.

Keywords:   Zuhur al-Din, tuntian (agrarian colonies), caravan merchants, government land, Kashgar

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