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Hard Target – Sanctions, Inducements, and the Case of North Korea - Stanford Scholarship Online
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Hard Target: Sanctions, Inducements, and the Case of North Korea

Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland


Because authoritarian regimes like North Korea can impose the costs of sanctions on their citizens, they constitute “hard targets.” Yet such regimes may also be immune—and even hostile—to economic inducements if those inducements imply reform and opening. Can economic carrots and sticks by used effectively with respect to such systems? This book draws on an array of evidence—trade data, surveys of Chinese and South Korea firms doing business in North Korea, and an analysis of the country’s political structure—to capture the effects of sanctions and inducements. The book also provides a detaile ... More

Keywords: North Korea, nuclear weapons, proliferation, sanctions, economic statecraft, foreign policy

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2017 Print ISBN-13: 9781503600362
Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: September 2017 DOI:10.11126/stanford/9781503600362.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Stephan Haggard, author
Graduate School of Global Policy and Strategy

Marcus Noland, author
Peterson Institute for International Economics