Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Alone at the AltarSingle Women and Devotion in Guatemala, 1670-1870$

Brianna Leavitt-Alcántara

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781503603684

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: May 2018

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9781503603684.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM STANFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.stanford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Stanford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in SSO for personal use. Subscriber: null; date: 29 July 2021

(p.283) Index

(p.283) Index

Source:
Alone at the Altar
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
Adrián de San José, 117
Adultery, 29–30, 52, 61, 174, 207
Affective piety, 32, 104, 142, 172, 190, 205
Africans, 1, 3, 26, 54, 62, 72, 79, 112–15, 207;
religious traditions, 80–81. See also Free blacks; Mulattas/os
Ágreda, Sor María de, 69
Alcohol. See Drunkenness
Alimony, 203
Alumbradismo (Illuminism), 64
Amit, Vered, 231n40
Angels, 68, 134, 139, 143, 149–50, 165, 168, 172, 244n20
Anticlericalism, 163, 168, 179, 181–84, 194, 196, 200, 204
Apostolate of Prayer (Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus), 195, 204
Arrom, Silvia, 12, 186, 212n39
Asceticism, 31, 34, 43, 192, 205. See also Fasting; Penitential piety
Association of Catholic Female Teachers, 204
Association of Christian Mothers, 204
Association of the Daughters of Mary Immaculate, 187–200, 203;
distinct models of, 188–89;
female leadership, 190, 192;
female sexual purity, 193;
Jesuit missionaries, 187–88. See also Marian piety; Virgin Mary, Immaculate Conception
Associations. See Female congregations
Aycinena, Juan Fermín, 134
Aycinena, Juan José, 146, 170, 186
Aycinena, Luz Batres, 186
Aycinena, María Teresa, 8, 15, 134–72, 199, 243n4;
convent reform, 151–54;
covenant theology, 169–71;
female devotees, 143–46;
Imitatio Cristi, 141–42, 172;
Inquisition, 134, 136, 154–57, 159, 161–66;
miraculous images, 138–40;
mystical crucifixion, 134, 137–42;
Baroque, 83, 104, 113, 145, 150
Barrios, Justo Rufino, 201
Beatas, 3, 34–35, 37, 45–46, 56, 63–64, 96, 108, 185, 193;
Bethlemite, 88, 117, 119, 197, 199;
Council of Trent, 19–20, 33, 45, 60;
definition of, 20, 207;
education, 104, 106, 109–11, 117–26, 128, 132;
enlightened Catholicism, 118, 120;
hagiography, 67–68;
Indias, 120–26;
Inquisition, 63–64, 109–10, 155. See also Beaterios; Tertiaries
Beaterio de Belén, 27, 38, 88, 117, 128–30, 185, 197, 199. See also Rosal, Encarnación (p.284)
Beaterio de Indias, 104–5, 119–28, 130–31
Beaterio de Santa Rosa, 2, 56
Beaterios, 25, 56, 61, 107, 138, 202, 207;
education, 107–12, 116–31;
moral crimes, 50–51;
non-elite women, 106, 198–99;
Belén, Jospeh Fr., 222n33
Betancurt, Hermano Pedro de San José, 27, 35, 117, 141, 146;
Franciscan tertiary habit, 83–85
Bethlemites, 27, 35, 84, 88, 129, 141, 179, 197;
Bilinkoff, Jodi, 20, 66
Bilocation, 68–69
Blacks. See Free blacks
Books. See Devotional texts
Bourbon reforms, 85, 104, 110–14, 133, 155, 198
Boyer, Richard, 7, 213n42
Brazil, 206
Bristol, Joan, 54
British, 169, 184
Brotherhood of Charity, 73, 186, 195
Burial, 49, 62, 73, 97, 198;
confraternities, 76, 78, 89;
preferences, 76, 90, 173;
secularization. See also Cemeteries; Death
Burns, Kathryn, 95–96
Businesses, 176–77
Bustamante, José de, 146–48, 156–60
Cabildo. See City council
Calvary Church, 44, 142
Cano, Isabel, 62, 70
Capellanías, 199, 234n86, 259n111. See also Spiritual economy
Capirote, 77
Capuchinas (neighborhood), 235n8
Capuchin convent (female), 200
Capuchin missionaries, 180, 185;
expulsion, 201–2
Carmelite Convent (of Santa Teresa), 36, 56, 134, 137, 144, 151–54, 161–62, 164–65, 168, 173, 199–200
Carrera, Rafael, 9, 169–70, 175, 179, 184–85, 201, 203. See also Conservatives
Casa de Recogidas, 31, 60–61, 207, 226n94
Casaus y Torres, Ramón, 134, 136–38, 140, 143, 146–51, 153–59, 161–72, 179–80, 251n154
Castas, 13, 70, 207
Castro, Félix, 151, 161
Catarina de San Juan (la China Poblana), 67
Catherine of Sienna, 33, 38, 65
Catholic Church, 9, 75, 87, 172, 206;
early modern, 42, 65;
global, 5, 175;
liberal reforms, 169, 175, 179;
nineteenth-century, 9, 187, 204;
salvation, 87. See also Catholicism
Catholicism:
early modern, 3–5, 19–20, 33, 36–37, 39–40, 42, 50, 54–56, 62, 65–68, 104, 107, 118, 133, 190, 204;
enlightened, 77, 104, 119–20, 136, 149, 156–57, 172, 190;
global, 5, 8–9, 33, 40, 42, 65–71, 106, 133, 136, 172;
medieval, 33, 37, 46, 65–66, 118, 141–42, 218n70;
nineteenth-century, 9, 163;
progressive or Social, 104, 185, 205;
Spanish, 5, 33, 158
Catholic Union of Women in Commerce and Workshops, 204 (p.285)
Celibacy, 65–66, 104
Cemeteries, 76
Census data (padrones), 11, 29, 100, 174, 176, 235n8
Cerón, Juan, 36, 38–39, 62, 214n8, 220n92
Chambers, Sarah, 174
Charismatic Catholicism (Catholic Charismatic Renewal), 206
Chastity, 37, 66, 110, 121;
alternative ideals, 7, 74, 177;
feminine ideals, 6, 50, 52, 79, 126, 132
Chávez, Gabino, 189
Chesnut, R. Andrew, 206
Chiapas, 22, 24, 63, 140, 201, 227n109
Chicheria, 177
Child support, 51, 174, 180, 202. See also Fathers; Paternity
Chilean civil code, 202
Chinchilla Aguilar, Ernesto, 227n109
Chiquimula, 202
Cholera, 169, 176, 184–85
Chowning, Margaret, 79, 190, 236n5
Christ, 77, 147, 151, 160, 162, 172, 188;
Black Christ of Esquipulas, 185, 203;
Blood of, 197;
Child, 2, 97, 196;
Crucified, 199;
gendered medieval constructs, 141–42;
Holy Child of Atocha, 197;
of Humility and Patience, 196;
images of, 76, 88, 97, 143, 185, 195–97, 199;
imitation of, 8, 136, 141–42, 172;
mystical body of, 149;
mystical marriage, 137;
Nazarene, 110, 116, 142, 195;
Passion of, 137–38, 141–42, 172;
Sacred Heart, 88, 138, 185, 190, 192, 195, 204–5;
shrines, 143, 185;
suffering of, 32, 37. See also Via Crucis (Way of the Cross)
Christian, William, 4, 210n17
City council, 111, 141, 146–48, 157, 166
Civil codes, 174, 202
Clendinnen, Inga, 37, 83
Clergy, 8, 40, 63, 68, 100, 104, 149, 170, 179, 182, 183, 185, 204. See also Catholic Church; Missionaries; Priests
Clossey, Luke, 4
Clothing, 2, 36, 87, 130, 141, 177, 186;
and moral status, 81–84. See also Tertiaries, habit worn in public
Coffee, 2, 201
Colegio de Doncellas, 60
Colegio del Cristo Crucificado/College of the Crucified Christ (La Recolección), 25–26, 75. See also Propaganda Fide
Colegio de Nuestra Señora de la Presentación (El Niñado), 60, 129
Colegio de Nuestra Señora de la Visitación. See Cruz del Milagro school
Colegio de Pinula, 104, 107–19, 128, 130–31, 165;
Bourbon reforms, 105, 109, 112;
educational reform, 111–18;
laywomen, 105–11;
race, 106, 112–16. See also Education
Colegio de Vizcainas, 109
Colombia, 183, 206
Commerce (petty), 101, 174, 176. See also Businesses
Company of Mary (La Enseñanza), 107–9, 116, 118, 123
Concepción convent, 25, 154
Concubinage, 52. See also Informal unions
Confession, 20, 36, 52, 66–67, 96, 125, 150, 153, 191;
Franciscan missionaries, 26, 53;
general, 32, 57; (p.286)
and Jesuits, 35–41;
non-elite single women, 20–22, 29, 31–33, 35–41, 54–57, 80, 96, 130, 145, 180, 183, 191, 220n101;
parish priests, 96–97;
solicitation, 64, 227n109
Confraternities (Religious Brotherhoods), 14, 26, 36, 43, 76, 88, 194, 203;
decline, 8, 174, 177–78, 183, 190, 200;
education, 109, 117–18;
and enlightened Catholicism, 104, 118;
female leadership of, 73, 80–81, 121, 192, 194, 207;
local religion, 76–77, 98;
membership, 27, 77, 79;
Confraternity of the Cord, 86, 89, 109, 118
Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. See Propaganda Fide
Congregation of San Felipe Neri, 26, 93, 97, 100, 138
Congregation of the Good Death, 195
Congregation of Women of the Immaculate Conception, 186
Congregations. See Female congregations
Conservatives, 8–9, 116, 146, 166, 168–69, 182, 205;
Catholic Church, 179, 184–85, 194, 196, 198, 200, 203;
and liberals, 168, 175, 182;
popular conservatism, 9, 15, 167, 169, 180, 184, 200;
Rafael Carrera, 169, 184–85, 201;
and women, 135, 175, 184, 194, 196, 200
Consolidación de vales reales, 132
Convents (female), 5, 24–26, 36, 46–47, 54–56, 59, 62, 65, 68, 75, 106, 134, 137–39, 142, 144, 150–51, 161–65;
confraternities, 77, 88;
Council of Trent, 3–4, 33, 41–43, 60;
education, 107, 109, 112–13, 123, 127, 131–32;
exclaustration, 202;
liberal reforms, 168, 202;
native women, 121–26;
non-elite women, 88, 90, 173, 198–200;
populations, 34;
reforms, 109, 132, 151–54, 158, 162, 165;
religious endowments, 90, 92–93;
Córdova y Salinas, Diego, 70
Corpus Christi Convent (Mexico City), 122
Cortés y Larraz, Pedro, 22, 77, 99
Costeloe, Michael, 234n86
Coteguera, Luis, 224n60
Council of Trent, 3–4, 19, 33, 44, 60, 65, 67, 107
Counter Reformation, 59, 66
Courts, 51;
nineteenth-century, 174, 176
Covenant Theology, 169–71
Criada/o, 92, 258n71
Crime, 101, 119, 175–76, 205;
religious or sexual, 30, 52, 60–61, 64, 110, 226n94
Criollo/a, 21, 48, 54, 60, 106, 136, 160, 207;
girls’ schools, 112, 114, 119, 127, 129;
Independence-era politics, 146–49, 156–60, 166–69, 171
Croquer, Antonio, 131, 162, 165
Cruz, Serapio, 201
Cruz del Milagro school, 104–5, 124, 127–32
Cussen, Celia, 62, 70
Daughters of Charity, 4, 107, 188, 189
Davis, J., 10
Death, 10, 21;
good death, 76, 78, 91, 195
Demographics, 1, 3, 11–13, 20, 22–23, 58, 81, 100, 112, 120, 144, 174, 176, 195, 202 (p.287)
Desan, Susan, 181
Devil, 21, 45, 55, 64, 80, 155, 161, 205
Devotion:
collective, 4, 34, 36, 43, 78, 104, 110, 119, 125, 142;
confraternities, 76–77, 80, 177;
early modern Catholicism, 67, 104, 172;
gendered trends, 8, 34–35, 90–91, 136, 143–46, 160;
holy women, 19, 31–32, 54, 63, 69, 134, 140–46, 154, 156, 160, 164–65, 172;
images, 27, 91, 178;
medieval forms, 4, 141;
nineteenth-century, 9, 136, 142–44, 166, 172, 175, 178–79, 183–200, 205;
Third Orders, 34, 43–44, 83, 177;
Devotional networks, non-elite laywomen, 7–8, 14, 20, 31–32, 35, 40, 64, 71, 73, 78, 86, 88, 94–95, 97, 119, 133, 136, 145, 165, 172–73, 175, 177–78, 181, 191, 194–95, 198, 200, 203
Devotional texts, 27, 32, 35, 67, 76, 129, 191, 195. See also Literacy
Divorce, ecclesiastical, 30–31, 47–48, 205;
civil divorce, 183;
and enclosure, 61
Domestic abuse, 22, 68, 215n19
Domesticity, 177. See also Feminine ideals
Dominicans, 19, 43, 75, 92, 94, 97, 138, 188;
Beaterio de Indias, 120
Don/Doña, 1, 93;
Franciscan Third Order, 47–48, 85;
as measure of social status, 13–14, 101
Donadas/os, 57, 62, 207
Doncellas, 31, 34, 47, 72, 82, 91, 94, 106, 173, 207;
Franciscan Third Order, 44–45, 85. See also Single women
Drunkenness, 52
Dunn, Henry, 175
Earthquakes, 30, 77;
of 1717, 46, 64, 74–75;
of 1773, 14, 99, 100–101, 106, 108, 111, 117, 119, 127, 133, 169, 176. See also Relocation (of capital)
Economic Society of Friends of the Country (Guatemala), 115
Education, 90;
beaterios, 108, 110, 119–26;
Bourbon crown, 103–5, 109, 113–14, 126;
feminine ideals, 103–5, 132;
free grammar schools, 103, 105, 107–8, 111, 117, 119, 127–28, 131;
non-elite laywomen, 7, 15, 104, 107–33;
reform of, 15, 76, 103–4, 107, 111–19, 126;
religious orders, 104, 107–11, 116–18, 126, 132;
Eire, Carlos, 87, 212n39
El Salvador, 20–23, 28, 74, 168, 169, 222n33. See also San Salvador
Enlightenment, 8, 15, 76;
and Catholicism, 145, 147, 155, 160;
education, 103–4, 110, 117–18, 120, 133
Epidemics, 30, 176
Epiphany, 198
Escoto, Luis, 130
Escuela de Cristo. See Holy School of Christ
Escuela pública, 124. See also Education
Esparragosa, Narciso, 138, 140, 145, 246n64
Espinosa, Isidrio Félix de, 26, 44–47, 49
Esquipulas (Black Christ of), 23, 185, 203
Estephania de San Joseph, 62, 70
Eucharist (Blessed Sacrament), 76, 140, 142, 190, 195, 205;
as a symbol of social unity, 149
Evangelicalism, 205 (p.288)
Evangelization, 27, 35, 42, 53, 63, 166;
education, 118–20;
hagiography, 67–68;
and laywomen, 3, 34, 42, 47, 53, 57–59, 68–71, 133, 192, 205
Evennett, H. Outram, 228n121
Extirpation campaigns, 62
Famine, 30, 111, 175–76
Fasting, 130, 192. See also Penitential piety
Fathers, 95, 177;
and education, 103;
illegitimate children, 1, 48, 51, 66, 72, 78, 89, 194, 202. See also Child support; Paternity
Feast days, 2, 22, 27, 43, 76, 86, 89, 124–25, 127, 130, 150, 185, 197, 203
Female congregations:
as active religious orders, 104–11, 116, 119, 125–26, 128, 130, 185, 188;
Feminine ideals:
alternative, 7–8, 54, 74, 78, 81, 83–84, 88, 177;
early modern, 40, 54, 56, 79, 119, 125, 133;
elite, 6;
Enlightenment thought, 15, 105;
flexible, 40, 53–60, 69–71;
medieval, 4;
native women, 121, 126;
nineteenth-century, 127, 132, 172, 174, 177, 200. See also Chastity; Republican Motherhood
Feminization (of piety), 34, 107, 144
Few, Martha, 5
Flores, Cirilo, 181–82
France, 10, 144, 149, 181;
female religious orders, 4, 68, 107, 118, 185, 188
Francisca de los Ángeles, 45, 47, 63, 69
Franciscans, 27, 34, 40, 70, 73, 89, 113–14, 120, 124, 138, 150, 188, 218n69;
Bourbon reforms, 75–76, 85, 92;
convent church, 24–25, 79, 89, 142, 160, 197;
liberal reforms, 181–82;
missionaries, 26, 41–53, 56, 58–60, 62–64, 66, 68–71, 94, 118, 120, 131, 151, 161, 165, 181, 193;
religious chronicles, 4, 26, 44–47, 49, 70, 191;
relocation of capital, 100. See also Propaganda Fide; Tertiaries; Third Orders
Francis of Assisi, 27, 50, 82–83, 142, 152
Francos y Monrroy, Cayetano, 105, 119–20, 130, 238n37
Free blacks:
confraternities, 73, 79–81;
education, 106, 114–15;
freed slaves, 49, 62, 72–73, 79;
holy women, 62;
Third Orders, 51, 106, 108;
urban population, 1, 30;
will-makers, 1–2, 13, 49, 72–73, 79. See also Africans; Mulattas/os
Funerals, 19, 43, 73, 75–76, 78, 89
Gaceta de Guatemala, 177, 186
García-Peláez, Francisco (Archbishop), 179
Gavarrete, José María, 173
Gender, 3–8, 10, 14, 20, 30, 128, 177;
demographics, 100, 176;
holy women, 21, 54, 69–70, 162–64;
migration patterns, 11–12;
race, 121, 126;
religious practice, 33–34, 37, 39, 42, 44–45, 47, 50, 53, 79, 81, 88, 90, 95, 136, 141–45, 160, 205–6;
sin, 50–51. See also Feminine ideals
Graubart, Karen, 12, 212n34
Guatemala, 3–13, 21, 26, 34, 44, 46, 49, 62, 69, 132–34, 143, 187–93, 200;
archives, 9;
Catholic Church in, 77, 100, 148, 153, 164, 169–70, 175, 178–81, 185, 200, 202–6;
confraternities, 77, 202;
courts, 51–52;
economy of, 88, 133, 169, 175, 201;
education, 103–5, 111, (p.289) 113, 119–20, 122, 132–33;
Independence, 167, 170–71;
Inquisition, 63–65, 154–56;
Kingdom/audiencia of, 1–2, 22–23, 61, 100, 113, 157;
Mexican Provincial Councils, 128, 153;
nineteenth-century, 172, 174–76, 178–84;
religious orders, 75–76, 114, 120, 164, 168–69, 198–99;
and San Salvador, 169;
sexual mores, 52. See also Guatemala City; Santiago de Guatemala
Guatemala City, 23;
Catholic Church, 15, 100, 185, 196–97, 200–206;
construction, 14, 99–101;
demographics, 100, 176;
education, 103–6, 117, 119, 122, 127–28;
María Teresa Aycinena, 134, 139–53, 160, 167;
non-elite women, 9, 15, 100–101, 174–75, 178, 182, 186–87, 189–206;
politics, 157, 159, 167–69, 182, 184, 201–3;
relationship with Central American provinces, 168–69, 182, 184;
religious practice, 178, 185–200, 201–6;
socioeconomic conditions, 99–101, 175–76
Gudmundson, Lowell, 169
Guerra, Catalina, 38, 56
Guerra de Jesús, Anna:
active religiosity, 35, 54–58, 68–70, 118;
death, 19, 41;
El Salvador, 21–22;
female mysticism, 32–33, 35;
hagiography, 19–20, 33, 39, 41, 53–54, 65–70, 134;
marriage, 21–22, 29, 37–39, 65–66;
as model of female piety, 54–61, 67–70, 193;
and motherhood, 21, 32, 37–38;
relationship to sacraments, 21–22, 29, 31–32, 35–40;
Santiago de Guatemala, 22–31;
spiritual direction, 31–32, 35–40. See also Guerra, Catalina; Jesuits
Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen, 67, 228n121
Hagiography, 19, 32;
expanding definition, 214n4;
as historical source, 5, 20–21;
models of feminine piety, 33, 53–54, 66–68;
native women, 121–22. See also Guerra de Jesús, Anna
Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel, 115, 147–48
Hijo/a natural, 1, 48, 72, 78, 88–89, 94, 196. See also Illegitimacy; Paternity; Single women
Holy School of Christ, 26, 36, 57, 65, 97, 198
Holy Week, 77, 142, 196, 203. See also Lent
Holy women, 5, 19, 21, 32, 39–41, 50, 53, 59, 136;
apostolic mission, 65–70;
Imitation of Christ, 142;
race, 62–63, 121;
relationships with priests, 164;
Honor:
non-elite women, 6–7, 74, 78, 88;
religious institutions, 60, 112, 129, 131;
sex, 51;
and social status, 13–14;
and Third Orders, 34, 45, 47–50, 73, 82, 158. See also Don/Doña
Hospital de San Juan de Dios, 185–86, 202
Husbands, 48, 57, 66, 89, 205;
and abuse, 21, 194;
domestic economy, 86, 180, 194, 196–99;
legal privileges, 65, 174;
nineteenth-century ideals, 177;
property law, 11–12;
spousal abandonment and separation, 29–31, 34, 37, 40, 49, 54, 59–62, 95, 145, 193–94;
will-making, 213n43. See also Child support; Marriage; Paternity; Widows
Ideals. See Feminine ideals
Illegitimacy, 1, 14;
rates of, 3, 6, 29, 58, 180, 203, 207, 223n46. (p.290) See also Hijo/a natural; Paternity; Single women
Images (of Christ, Mary, and saints):
local religion, 4, 27, 31, 75–77, 84–85, 88, 91, 178, 203;
and María Teresa Aycinena, 134, 138–41, 143–46, 150, 155, 161, 164–65;
politics, 170, 182. See also Christ; Virgin Mary
Imitatio Cristi, 141–42
Immaculate Conception. See Virgin Mary, Immaculate Conception
Independence/Post-Independence, 115, 134, 138, 144;
female education, 132–33;
gender, 136, 166–67;
Inquisition, 156;
non-elite women, 6–9, 15, 101, 167, 174–78, 180–200;
religious practice, 142–49, 156–60, 180–84, 186–200;
socioeconomic conditions, 175–77
Indians, 2–3, 26, 29–31, 44, 53, 62–63, 69–71, 75, 83, 94, 163, 167, 176, 183, 185, 201;
confraternities, 80–81;
demographics, 13;
education, 104–5, 108, 112–14, 116, 118–26, 133;
and popular conservatism, 185;
relocation of villages, 99;
revolts, 42, 169, 184;
spiritual status, 120–23;
wills, 12–13. See also Repartimiento
Indigo, 74, 88, 101, 126, 133, 169
Indulgences, 76, 79, 87, 191
Informal unions, 6–7, 29, 48, 52–53. See also Illegitimacy
Inheritance law, 2, 11–12, 87, 203
Inquisition, 67, 143;
missionaries, 46, 63, 69–70;
non-elite women, 3, 20, 30, 80;
religious laywomen, 20, 46, 63, 109–10;
as historical source, 5, 9;
Insurgency, 166
Jaffary, Nora, 3
Jesuits, 19, 24, 204, 219n85;
abolition, 162;
expulsions, 75, 201–2;
female education, 116, 118;
hagiography, 4–5, 20, 27, 41–42, 53–60, 67–70;
missionary movements, 5, 9, 36, 42, 53–60, 67–71, 118, 175, 180, 185–89, 195, 197–98, 200;
native women, 116, 118, 122;
nineteenth-century, 175, 180, 185–93, 195, 197–98, 200;
nonelite women, 19–20, 22, 27, 35–43, 50, 53–62, 65, 67–71, 118, 175, 180, 186–93, 195, 197–98, 200;
recogimientos, 50, 61–62;
Jutiapa, 202
Komisaruk, Catherine, 13, 213n46
Labouré, Catherine, 188–89
Ladies of Charity, 186
La Enseñanza. See Company of Mary
La Ermita (neighborhood), 127
Laicization, 8, 108, 203
Larkin, Brian, 77
Larrazábal, Antonio, 197
Lavrin, Asucnion, 19, 40, 51, 79, 225n88
Laywomen:
active religiosity, 3–4, 33–35, 42, 104–11, 180–200;
early modern Catholicism, 3–7, 20, 33–35, 39–40, 42–54, 56, 59, 65–71;
enlightened Catholicism, (p.291) 104, 116;
nineteenth-century Catholicism, 8–9, 15, 143–46, 178, 180–200;
sources, 5, 9–14;
Legitimacy. See Illegitimacy
Lent, 77, 125, 134, 137, 142, 148–49. See also Holy Week
Leo XIII, 204
Liberals, 146–48, 166–69, 171, 201;
Catholic Church, 8–9, 134, 142, 163, 167–69, 178–79, 181–84, 201–2;
civil codes, 174, 202;
gender, 136, 184;
Liberation Theology, 205
L’Incarnation, Marie de, 68
Literacy, 35, 70, 111–12, 117
Local religion, 3–5, 14;
Lockhart, James, 213n42
Loma, Enrique, 131
López, Melchor, 26, 44
López Rayón, Mariano, 131, 140, 144–45, 151, 154, 160, 164
Loreto López, Rosalva, 225n88
Lutz, Christopher, 13, 25, 58
Manuel de la Madre de Dios, 140
Margil de Jesús, Antonio, 26, 44–45, 56, 69
María de la Visitación (Nun of Lisbon), 155
María Manuela de Santa Ana, 144–45
Mariana de Jesús (Lily of Quito), 193
Marian piety, 175, 187–93, 199–200. See also Virgin Mary
Market women, 29–30, 83, 173–74, 176–77, 195, 198, 200, 202, 205
Marriage, 1, 51;
civil codes, 174, 183, 202–3;
early modern Catholicism, 65–66;
female holiness, 21, 65–66;
feminine ideals, 7, 104, 177, 202–3;
girls’ schools, 112, 131–32;
promise, 48, 51, 180;
property, 11–12, 48, 86, 180, 196;
spiritual or mystical, 32, 137;
urban context, 12, 33, 58, 174, 176. See also Husbands; Wives
Martínez, Bernardo, 154, 156–60, 164
Marure, Alejandro, 181–83
Masses, 229n5;
perpetual endowments of, 86, 89–97, 207;
pious bequests in wills, 2, 73, 76, 197, 199;
relationships between women and priests, 93–97. See also Capellanías; Spiritual economy
Matías Delgado, José, 138, 156
Maya, 46, 62–63. See also Indians
Méndez, José Mariano, 161
Mendicants. See Religious orders (male)
Mercedarians, 64–65, 78–79, 86, 89, 100, 108, 117, 130, 140, 151, 154, 160, 164, 187, 195, 197–98, 204
Merida, 199
Mexican Provincial Councils, 110, 121, 128
Migration, 2, 11–14, 22, 29, 75, 205;
and religious practice, 20, 33–34, 47, 62, 65, 88 (p.292)
Milanich, Nara, 202
Military, 169, 176, 183–84, 202, 205. See also Warfare
Miracles, 27, 54, 135–37, 143, 147–50, 185, 191, 206;
nineteenth-century Catholicism, 149, 156–57, 163, 188, 203, 205;
Miraculous medals, 188, 203
Missionaries, 4–5, 9, 26, 34–36, 104, 152, 161, 165–66;
Bourbon reforms, 70;
and education, 118, 120–21, 126, 131;
hagiography, 67–68;
lay female evangelizers, 42, 47, 53–59, 68–71;
models of feminine piety, 42, 53, 59, 62–63, 65–68, 71, 193;
nineteenth century, 180, 185–89, 192, 201;
non-elite single women, 15, 41–53, 62–63, 66–68, 71, 94, 166, 175, 189, 192, 198, 200, 206;
politics, 167, 181;
and sexual morality, 52, 58, 61. See also Jesuits; Propaganda Fide
Missions:
early modern, 4, 68;
urban, 26, 44, 58, 63, 69–70, 118, 181, 185. See also Missionaries
Modernization, 7, 201
Molina, Pedro, 138, 140, 144–45
Moneylending, 89
Montúfar, Lorenzo:
eighteenth-century mayor, 105;
nineteenth-century historian, 135
Mooney, Catherine, 218n70
Morazán, Francisco, 169
Motherhood:
female holiness, 37;
religious experience, 21–22, 32, 38;
social utility of, 104–5, 114, 132–33. See also Republican Motherhood
Mulattas/os, 1, 30, 49, 62, 72, 79–80;
attempted beaterio, 106, 108;
education, 106, 114;
tertiaries, 51, 106, 108
Muñoz, Vicente, 105–6, 111, 115
Muriel, Josefina, 19
Music, 21;
female education, 112–14
Myers, Kathleen, 5, 54
Mystical Body of Christ, 67, 149
Mysticism:
false, 3, 20, 63–64, 110, 155, 160, 162, 227n109;
Nativity (scene), 2, 88, 198
Non-elite women, 20–22;
confraternities, 78–81, 194;
early modern Catholicism, 3–6, 20, 67–68;
economic status of, 101;
education, 103, 105–6, 111–12;
female convents, 199;
María Teresa Aycinena, 136, 143–46;
nineteenth-century associations, 187–93, 195;
popular conservatism, 180–84;
post-Independence, 8, 173–80;
Republican Motherhood, 8, 174, 180–81, 194;
sex and status, 5–7, 72–74, 193–94;
sources, 9–14;
in Spanish-American cities, 2–3, 5–6, 29–31, 101;
spiritual economy, 86–93, 195–200;
Third Orders, 81–86. See also Market women; Single women
Noriega, José Esteban, 68
Notaries, 1–2, 9, 13, 72–73, 82, 95, 151, 159, 173. See also Wills
Novena, 2, 86, 91, 197, 229n5
Nueva Guatemala. See Guatemala City
Nun of Lisbon. See Maria de la Visitación
Nuns, 4–5, 8, 15, 19, 26, 34, 36, 40, 59, 68, 127, 132;
apostolic calling, 68–69, 107;
confessors, 39, 56, 67, 152–54;
convent reforms, 153;
Council of Trent, 60, 66–67;
exclaustration, 202;
false mysticism, 155;
laywomen, 88, 173, 197, 199–200;
liberals, 168;
native women, 121–23, 126;
nineteenth-century reform, 107, 132, 163;
rhetoric of humility, 56. (p.293) See also Aycinena, María Teresa; Convents (female); Vida común reforms
O’Hara, Matthew, 36, 104, 231n40
Orellana, José de, 106
Orphans, 2, 30, 45, 49, 60, 62, 65, 91, 94, 97, 118–19, 129, 186, 202
Orsi, Robert, 7, 218n63, 245n35
Ortiz, Anselmo, 138, 144–45, 150, 163, 170–71
Ovando, Bernardino de, 31–32, 35–36, 55, 57, 62
Parishes, 26–27, 63, 65, 90;
Candelaria, 131, 194, 196;
confraternities, 77–81, 216n35, 229n5;
education, 111, 113, 117, 127, 131;
native doctrinas, 75, 92, 96;
nineteenth century, 179–80;
priests, 96–97, 179–80, 199;
race, 13, 81, 232n51;
records, 9, 79;
religious endowments, 92;
Remedios, 36, 52, 80, 88, 97, 229n5;
rural, 22;
San Sebastián, 52, 79–80, 127, 216n35
Paternity, 202–3. See also Child support; Fathers
Payes, María Ignacia Mercedes, 168
Penitential piety, 26, 31–32, 36, 44, 49–50, 77, 83, 129–30, 132, 142, 148, 149, 152–53, 160, 165, 192
Pentecostalism, 205
Pérez, Rafael, 187, 192, 195
Pérez, Tomás, 68
Pérez de Jesús, Mariano, 131, 165, 170
Perfecta, Antonia, 127–32
Pilgrimage, 143–44, 188, 203
Pineda, Manuel José de, 113–14, 239n54
Pinula, 105. See also Colegio de Pinula
Pius VI, 149
Pius VII, 149, 170
Pius IX, 188, 190
Pope, 149, 162, 193, 200
Poska, Allyson, 6, 52
Powell, Amanda, 5
Prayer, 2, 31–32, 35, 38, 43, 57, 66, 69, 73, 76, 88, 94, 108, 124, 126, 129–31, 142–44, 150, 152, 157, 170, 188, 190–97, 206;
mental prayer, 35–36, 129, 131, 219n75
Priests, 26, 35–36, 89, 106, 164, 205–6;
confession, 36, 39–40, 65–67;
confraternities, 77, 88;
education, 109–10, 113–14, 127–31;
enforcement of sexual morality, 6, 51–52;
enlightened Catholicism, 149;
hagiography, 68;
María Teresa Aycinena, 134–40, 145, 158–59;
politics, 149, 158, 166, 181–85;
population of, 26, 29, 100, 108, 178–80, 185, 202;
race, 121;
religious endowments, 90;
Prison:
María Teresa Aycinena, 150–51;
religious ministries, 26, 36, 57, 118, 186;
and women, 30–31, 60–61, 186
Processions, 77, 185, 190, 196, 202–3
Propaganda Fide, 26, 34, 69–70, 75, 118, 131, 138, 151, 170, 181, 197;
non-elite single women, 42–53, 56, 63–65, 94, 198. See also Franciscans; Margil de Jesús, Antonio; Third Orders
Property:
female home ownership, 90–93, 97, 100;
law, 11–12, 174, 181;
male, 93. See also Inheritance law
Prophecy, 157–59, 161
Protestantism, 39, 65, 204–6;
Reformation, 67, 152
Protests, 30, 111, 202;
women, 181–83, 202
Puebla (Mexico), 67 (p.294)
Purgatory, 76, 78, 87–89, 150, 158, 161, 165, 191, 197
Querétaro (Mexico), 45, 47, 51, 63, 69, 109, 118
Quetzaltenango, 23, 181, 187
Quintana, María, 68
Race:
confraternities, 79–81, 86;
education, 105–6, 110, 112–17, 119–26, 130, 133;
as flexible category, 7, 74, 82–83;
hagiography, 5, 53, 62, 70;
Independence, 167;
missionaries, 53, 63, 70;
politics, 183–85;
Third Orders, 40, 43, 45;
urban demographics, 1, 13, 30, 72
Raymond of Capua, 65
Real Colegio de Indias de Guadalupe, 116, 122
Rebellion, 5, 146, 148, 169, 184. See also Insurgency; Violence; Warfare
Recogimiento, 55, 131;
as religious shelter or prison, 31, 50–51, 60–62, 106, 129, 207, 226n94. See also Casa de Recogidas
Recolección Convent (College of the Crucified Christ), 25–26, 34, 44, 75, 94, 131, 151, 160, 181, 197–98, 218n69
Relics, 69, 145, 164;
cult of, 141, 172
Religious brotherhoods. See Confraternities
Religious orders (female), 151, 198;
Religious orders (male), 3, 14, 20, 26, 34, 87–88, 96–97, 152, 185, 204;
Bourbon reforms, 70, 75–76, 92, 99, 104, 179;
education, 104, 109, 111, 116–18, 126;
enlightened Catholicism, 104;
exile of, 164, 169, 201;
female piety, 33–36, 63, 78, 132, 178, 186, 198–99;
hagiography, 68–69, 217n39;
Liberals, 168, 181–82, 201;
relationship with secular clergy, 26, 63, 216n30;
relocation of capital, 99. See also Franciscans; Jesuits; Propaganda Fide
Relocation (of capital), 14–15, 99–101, 106, 108, 111, 117, 119, 127, 133
Remedios (parish):
confraternities, 13, 25, 36, 52, 80, 88, 97, 229n5
Repartimiento, 114
Repentance, 46, 49–50, 53, 59, 61, 67, 83, 193
Republican Motherhood, 8, 174, 177, 180–81, 194, 203
Rerum Novarum, 204
Riots, 157, 181–83
Ritual, 113, 131, 142, 180, 196;
spaces, 133
Robledo, Francisco, 127, 130
Romanization, 204
Rome, 4, 149, 162, 188, 204
Rosal, Encarnación, 185, 199
Rosary, Our Lady of the. See Virgin Mary
Rose of Lima, 33, 54
Rose of Viterbo, 46–47
Rubial García, Antonio, 220n101
Rugeley, Terry, 199
Ruiz, Beatriz Ana, 68
Sacraments:
access, 21–22, 118, 127, 183;
early modern Catholicism, 66;
education, 118–19, 124–27, 131;
frequency of engagement, 21–22, 26–27, 31, 36, 54, 56, 106, 119, 126, 131, 183, 191, 205;
women prohibited from delivering, 59, 69
Sacred Heart (of Jesus), 88, 138, 190, 192, 195, 204–5;
Sorrows of the Sacred Heart, 185
Saints, 67, 75–77;
female, 21, 31–32;
male, 21;
relics, 141. See also Images; Virgin Mary (p.295)
Salvation, 6, 38, 76, 143, 150, 152, 161, 164;
missionaries, 27, 53, 55, 96;
religious associations, 76, 191;
spiritual economy, 76–77, 86–94;
and suffering, 141;
will-making, 2, 10, 86–94. See also Death; Purgatory
Sampson Vera Tudela, Elisa, 69
Sanders, James, 184
San José (chapel), 91
San Juan de Dios (neighborhood), 235n8
San Salvador, 23, 173, 182;
bishopric controversy, 167–68. See also El Salvador
San Sebastián (parish/neighborhood), 13, 25, 47, 52, 64, 78–80, 127, 181, 216n35
Santa Catalina Convent, 24–25, 154
Santa Clara Convent, 127, 168
Santa Rosa (town), 202
Santiago de Guatemala:
as audiencia capital, 1, 22;
Catholic Church, 24–26, 34, 41–44, 46–47, 75–77, 86–93;
confraternities, 77–81;
demographics, 1–2, 13, 22;
earthquakes, 14, 30, 77, 99;
economy, 74–75;
female enclosure, 60–62;
illicit sexuality, 6, 52–53, 58;
Inquisition, 63–65;
local religion, 5, 26–27, 36, 41–49, 63, 76–85;
migration, 13, 22;
relocation of capital, 99–101;
social and cultural trends, 23–31, 75–77;
spiritual economy, 86–93;
Schools. See Education
Secularization, 7, 10, 174, 178
Sex and sexuality:
Catholic Church, 8, 20–21, 39, 48, 50–52, 58, 60, 65, 121, 132, 175, 180, 193, 200;
female honor, 6–7, 74;
identity, 69, 142;
illicit, 51–52, 57–58, 61, 63, 95, 226n94;
post-Independence, 8, 174, 180, 184;
Spanish law, 51;
tolerance, 6, 51–52;
Single women:
associations of, 187–93, 195, 200;
confraternities, 78–79, 178, 194, 196;
early modern Catholicism, 3, 5, 39, 42, 45, 51–53, 60–62, 65–67;
and education, 106, 119, 128, 133;
Inquisition, 20, 42;
marriage market, 12, 112, 174, 176;
moral status of, 7, 14, 74, 81–86, 97–98, 128, 175, 177, 193, 200, 202–3;
nineteenth-century Catholicism, 136, 143–46, 172, 175, 188–93;
post-Independence, 6, 174–78, 180, 200;
regulation of, 29–31, 60–62, 174, 202;
religious experience, 38;
in Spanish American cities, 2–3, 12, 29, 60–62;
Spanish law, 12, 51;
spiritual economy, 77, 86–93, 175, 196–200;
Third Orders, 34, 40–49, 51, 77, 81–86, 119;
tolerance of, 42, 52–53, 60–62, 71;
will-making, 9–12, 72. See also Doncellas; Sex and sexuality; Soltera; Widows
Siria, Antonio de, 19–22, 27–32, 35–42, 53–62, 65–70, 214n8
Sisters of Charity, 185, 202
Slaves, 7, 13, 26, 54, 72, 79, 83, 153;
freed, 49, 58, 62, 67, 72, 74, 79
Society of Jesus. See Jesuits
Soltera, 72, 82–83, 207. See also Single women
Spain, 5–6, 44, 51–52, 60, 66, 75, 80, 99, 111, 115, 147, 149, 167–68, 188, 193
Spiritual economy:
definition, 86;
elite, 87, 233n72;
non-elite women, 87–98, 100, 183
Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius, 36–37, 59, 67 (p.296)
Starr-Lebeau, Gretchen, 233n66
Stations of the Cross. See Via Crucis (Way of the Cross)
Stephens, John Lloyd, 182–85
Stern, Steve, 95
Stigmata, 134, 137, 140–43, 145, 147, 149, 150, 152, 161;
gender, 142, 154
Sullivan-González, Douglass, 170, 179
Taylor, William, 4, 104, 143
Tekakwitha, Catherine, 67, 122
Teresa of Avila, 145, 155;
convent reform, 151–53;
gendered rhetoric, 162–63
Tertiaries, 27, 40, 142;
Council of Trent, 33, 41, 60;
definition and Rule, 20, 33, 43, 62;
education, 104–6, 108–9, 110, 116, 118, 120, 122, 127–29;
female saints, 33, 47, 54;
Franciscan missionaries, 40–50, 53, 62;
gendered patterns, 33, 42–43, 177–78;
habit worn in public, 73, 82–84, 128–29;
Inquisition, 63–64, 109–10;
as lay evangelizers, 47, 53, 58;
male, 76, 85;
mulatta, 106;
non-elite and single women, 34–35, 40–53, 56, 62–65, 70, 73, 82–86, 104, 106, 110, 122, 125, 127–29, 145, 193, 218n66
Third Mexican Council. See Mexican Provincial Councils
Third Orders, 20, 35, 97, 188;
Council of Trent, 20;
decline and abolition, 177–78, 202;
definition, 33;
Dominican, 125;
education, 105–10, 116–19;
enlightened Catholicism, 104, 116–18;
Franciscan, 40–53, 62, 64, 73, 76–77, 82–86, 105–6, 193, 196, 222n33;
and nineteenth-century associations, 191–93;
Rule of, 34, 43, 62. See also Tertiaries
Tithe, 178–79, 181, 202
Toledo Palomo, Ricardo, 233n66
Tortuguero (neighborhood), 73, 91, 229n4
Twinam, Ann, 6
Two Republics, 30
United Provinces of Central America (Federal Republic of Central America), 176
Urbanization, 33, 201
Ursulines, 68, 107
Vásquez, Francisco, 26, 49–50, 191
Vatican, 204;
Vatican II, 206. See also Pope; Rome
Vela Perpetua, 190
Via Crucis (Way of the Cross), 44, 125, 142, 192, 207
Vida común reforms, 109, 152–54
Villageliu, José Buenaventura, 150–51, 153–54, 157–63, 165–68, 243n4
Vincent, Mary, 193
Vincent de Paul, 185–86
Virgin Mary, 124–25;
apparitions and visions, 143, 151;
confraternities, 73, 78–81;
images of, 2, 31, 73, 86, 89, 94, 173, 189, 191–92, 194, 196, 198–99, 200;
Immaculate Conception, 173, 186–93, 198, 200;
nineteenth-century associations and devotions, 185–93, 197–98, 202, 205;
Our Lady of Belén, 97;
Our Lady of Carmen, 73, 81, 92;
Our Lady of Loreto, 191;
Our Lady of Mercy, 64, 86, 89, 197;
Our Lady of Remedies, 80;
Our Lady of Slavery, 79;
Our Lady of Sorrows, 78–79, 86, 97, 191, 196, 199;
Our Lady of the Incarnation, 173;
Our Lady of the Rosary, (p.297) 2, 31, 73, 94, 191, 194;
Our Lady of the Visitation, 127. See also Marian piety
Visitandines, 107
Vives, Juan Luis, 66
Voekel, Pamela, xii, 104
Von Germeten, Nicole, 79
Vovelle, Michel, 10
Walker Bynum, Caroline, 141–42
Warfare, 12, 133, 176
Wet nurses, 114
Widows, 9–12, 37, 62, 72, 86, 128, 177, 197–200;
confraternities and Third Orders, 34, 40, 43, 47–49, 51, 53, 78–81;
hagiography, 59, 68;
legal rights, 11–12, 203, 223n46;
marriage market, 12, 174, 176;
miraculous devotions, 143–46;
moral theology, 66;
nineteenth-century associations, 175, 193;
priests, 30, 95–98;
spiritual economy, 87–93
Wills, 1, 3, 75–76, 146, 212n34, 223n46, 235n106, 235n107;
demographic characteristics, 10–14, 75, 101, 145, 176, 254n16;
female religious practice, 33–34, 40–43, 47–49, 62–64, 72–74, 76, 78, 82, 84–91, 93–97, 145, 173, 175, 178, 180, 191, 194–99, 203, 218n66;
methodological approach, 9–14, 212n39, 213n43;
nineteenth-century shifts, 178;
property, 91, 93, 101;
Spanish law, 1–2, 72
Witchcraft, 5, 64, 227n109
Wives, 7, 132, 186;
abandoned/separated, 11–12, 30–31, 40, 42, 43, 47–49, 51, 53, 55, 59–61, 63, 65, 78, 82, 175, 177, 193, 200, 203;
indigenous, 114;
liberal reforms, 174, 203;
property rights, 11, 203;
social and moral role of, 103, 177;
will-making, 213n43. See also Domestic abuse; Marriage; Motherhood
Women:
early modern Catholicism, 19, 39, 50, 66;
Enlightenment, 103, 133, 145, 160;
nineteenth-century Liberals, 8, 135, 174, 183–84;
Woodward, Ralph Lee, 201
Wright-Rios, Edward, 163
Ximénez, Francisco, 46, 64, 191
Zúñiga, Baltasar de, 121