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Beyond TechnonationalismBiomedical Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Asia$
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Kathryn C. Ibata-Arens

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781503605473

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9781503605473.001.0001

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From Closed to Open in India

From Closed to Open in India

Import Substitution, IITs, and Liberalization

(p.137) Chapter 5 From Closed to Open in India
Beyond Technonationalism

Kathryn C. Ibata-Arens

Stanford University Press

Decades ago, led by the technonational rhetoric of self-reliance and improvement in human health, India delayed opening its market. Consequently, India spent decades on import substitution and other exclusionary policies in a classic technonational system architecture like Japan. Later, India invested in generic-drug research and development and production capacity, complemented by advances in information technology. State-led human-capital development—for example, in the semi-independent Indian Institutes of Technologies (IITs)—targeted initially information technology and more recently has focused on biomedicine. Expatriate and diaspora returnee networks of Indian professionals, via its networked technonational architecture, since the 1990s have contributed to the development of innovative capacity and new ventures, but at a slower pace than in China.

Keywords:   import-substitution, Gandhi, Nehru, Biocon, WTO TRIPS, swadeshi, videshi, Patent Act, NRI, CIPLA

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