This chapter begins with the emergence of a convoluted new colonial arrangement created by the Act of Algeciras (1906) and the establishment of the Protectorate of Morocco (1912) under France and Spanish administration. This system created several new borders and jurisdictional ambiguities that a number of enterprising individuals learned to exploit. The chapter profiles the rise of three such figures, comparing and contrasting their tactics and accounting for their successes and failures. The Moroccans Bu Hmara and Raisuni, and the Spaniard Juan March, all found ways to amass wealth and political influence by positioning themselves on the borders of rival imperial spheres and inhabiting spaces of diluted sovereign authority. They were skilled at gaining protection from one imperial power while breaking the laws of another. Bu Hmara and Raisuni fell only after multiple powers aligned against them, a fate Juan March avoided altogether.
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