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The Deepest BorderThe Strait of Gibraltar and the Making of the Modern Hispano-African Borderland$
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Sasha D. Pack

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781503606678

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9781503606678.001.0001

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Illusory Neutrality, 1914–1918

Illusory Neutrality, 1914–1918

(p.139) 6 Illusory Neutrality, 1914–1918
The Deepest Border

Sasha D. Pack

Stanford University Press

This chapter looks at the contradictory set of international legal and political requirements prevailing on Spain and Morocco during World War I. There was little will on the part of Spain to enter the conflict, yet it was unclear how to adhere to the requirements of wartime neutrality while also meeting the obligation to administer a portion of the Moroccan Sultanate, a belligerent state by virtue of association with France. German agents, such as the Mannesmann mining firm, exploited this legal and political grey zone to infiltrate the pro-Entente sultanate via the many maritime smuggling networks, brigands, and safe havens of Spanish Morocco. Although this had little bearing on the war’s outcome, it convinced the leader of the French colonial army, Hubert Lyautey, that the Spanish officer corps was an unreliable partner.

Keywords:   World War I, Spanish Morocco, Mannesmann Brothers (Max and Reinhard), Hubert Lyautey, Raisuni, Juan March, Wilhelm II of Germany

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