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Education and Intergenerational Social Mobility in Europe and the United States$
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Richard Breen and Walter Müller

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781503610163

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9781503610163.001.0001

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Intergenerational Social Mobility in Twentieth-Century Spain

Intergenerational Social Mobility in Twentieth-Century Spain

Social Fluidity without Educational Equalization?

(p.224) Chapter Ten Intergenerational Social Mobility in Twentieth-Century Spain
Education and Intergenerational Social Mobility in Europe and the United States

Carlos J. Gil-Hernández

Fabrizio Bernardi

Ruud Luijkx

Stanford University Press

This chapter studies long-term trends in intergenerational class mobility in Spain across the twentieth century drawing from a large pooled dataset (n = 81,475). From the 1960s, Spain underwent a late but intense economic, cultural, and political modernization process. During this period of far-reaching institutional change, men and women experienced a significant increase in upward mobility rates and social fluidity: steady and substantial for women, more modest for men. We disentangle different pathways driving this change in social fluidity using counterfactual simulations. The main drivers of the observed equalization of opportunities were the educational expansion and the direct effect of social origins. We argue that women were particularly benefited from dramatic structural changes in labor force participation, occupational upgrading, and educational expansion in which more room at the top allowed disadvantaged social classes to depart from their origins.

Keywords:   intergenerational social mobility, social class, Spain, cohort analysis, education, modernization, log-linear models, simulations

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