Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Legacy of PluralismThe Continental Jurisprudence of Santi Romano, Carl Schmitt, and Costantino Mortati$

Mariano Croce and Marco Goldoni

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781503612112

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: January 2021

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9781503612112.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM STANFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.stanford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Stanford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in SSO for personal use. Subscriber: null; date: 15 April 2021

(p.235) Index

(p.235) Index

Source:
The Legacy of Pluralism
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
absolute discretion, 157, 225n69
absolutism, 22–23, 155
abstractness, 222n26
administrative law, 29–32, 53–54, 155–56, 201, 225n66
administrative state, 3, 12, 29
agency, 24–25, 77, 92, 124, 147, 187
Althusius, Johannes, 23, 25
anarchism, 34–35
Ancien Régime, 15, 55, 188
Anglo-Saxon theories, 115
Anscombe, G. E. M., 203–4n3
Anstalt (institution), 23
antisubjectivism, 101
Aquinas, Thomas, 40
“arch,” concept of, 228n104
Aristotle, 40, 112
artificial life (vita artificialis), 23
artificial person (persona artificialis), 23
associations, 2, 209n66;
banding together of, 56–57;
collaboration between, 33–36, 41–42, 56;
conviction (voluntary and necessary), 172–73;
corporations as stable, 23;
Germanic law based on interactions of, 17;
inner functioning/internal law of, 8–9, 37–38, 45, 48, 69–70, 72;
law of, 3, 45–46, 48;
laws of social groups, 37–38, 44;
living law of, 44–49;
as necessary to state, 44, 93–94;
self-organization of, 3, 18–19, 36, 41, 44–45, 51–52, 57, 60, 83, 94, 122, 125;
as threat to state, 3, 9, 32–36, 41, 56, 100, 115, 178;
as type of institution, 67. See also institution; substate bodies
Austin, John, 189
Austro-Hungarian Empire, 46
authoritarian regimes, 21, 37, 136–37, 139, 233n16
authority, constituted, 144
autonomy:
of governing function, 159;
of law, 3–4, 10, 134, 171;
of legal knowledge, 3, 6–7;
limited, 4, 12;
political, 3, 179
Barker, Ernest, 24
Barnes, Barry, 218n15
Bates, David, 124, 125
bearer of legal order, 149–50, 166, 169, 176
behavior, 65, 85–86, 105, 135, 146, 148, 152, 176;
institutional standards and, 130–31;
standardizing rules and, 39. See also punishment; sanction
(p.236)
Berlin, Isaiah, 11, 12
Beseler, Georg, 17, 20
Bloor, David, 218n15
Böckenförde, Ernst-Wolfgang, 114–15
bootstrapping paradigm, 179, 196, 200, 218n15
borderline cases, 76–77, 104
bourgeoisie, 35
Bourses du Travail (union), 35
Brännström, Leila, 110
Brigaglia, Marco, 224n53
British pluralist theory, 36, 209n66
Calker, Fritz von, 101
capitalist society, 34
Carré de Malberg, Raymond, 150
Catholic Church, 36, 110
centripetal and centrifugal actions, 3, 10, 31, 36, 42, 85, 137–38, 161, 181
certainty, problem of, 42, 131–34, 144, 146, 222n26
Cesarini Sforza, Widar, 214n49, 232n9;
jural relationships, 76–79, 81–82, 86
checks and balances model, 140, 156
citational performance, 108
citizenship, 12, 20, 155, 198
civil law, 4, 75, 83, 91–92
civil society, 3, 12, 81, 112, 114–15
class conflict, 34–35, 155
classic legal institutionalism, 2–3, 10, 142, 185, 203n3. See also legal institutionalism
clausole dilatorie (postponing clauses), 172
codification, 5, 31, 43–45, 188
coercion, 63–65;
Mortati’s view, 150–51;
social fields and, 92. See also punishment; sanction
Cole, G. D. H., 3, 36, 209n66
collective interests, 33, 38, 150, 175, 180;
institutionalization of, 68–69
command, 39, 150–51, 166–67
communitarianism, 12, 223n46
Comte, Auguste, 37
The Concept of Law (Hart), 63–64, 73–74
The Concept of the Political (Schmitt), 104, 106–17
conceptual critique of legal positivism, 105–6, 109
concrete-order and formation thinking, 201;
in Mortati’s work, 146, 149;
of Schmitt, 9, 100, 101, 110–17, 125–30, 193
conditions of possibility, 38, 111
conflict:
conflicting interests, 27, 29;
depoliticization of, 98;
existential menace, 107;
formal metamorphosis, 107–8, 113, 119;
friend-enemy criterion, 106–9, 111, 114–15, 119, 123–24, 167, 217–18n10;
performative condition for, 107–8;
political antagonism, 107, 170;
practical vs. legal, 95–96;
social vs. political, 113;
virtual possibility of, 108. See also revolution; violence
consciousness:
legal, 16, 27, 42, 75, 186–87;
social, 27, 42, 149–50, 162
consensus, 7, 9–10
Constituent Assembly, 141, 170–71, 228n105, 231nn141, 143
constituent power, 141, 170–72, 195–97, 229–30n122, 230nn126, 129;
popular sovereignty and, 174–78
constituted authority, 144
constitution:
as composed of institutional guarantees, 120;
conventionalist interpretation, 171–74, 228n110;
as integration, 162;
liminal figures of, 181–82;
as ordering principle, 222n31;
regionalist type, 180;
substantial, (p.237) 119–20;
suspension of, 182. See also material constitution
constitutional law, 29–30, 225n69;
political direction (indirizzo politico), 10, 157, 163–64, 226nn76, 86
constitutional monarchy, 20
constitutional order, 7, 137–40, 151–58, 176–83, 197–98, 200, 233n16;
political parties and, 165–68, 174
constitutional pluralism, 202
constitutional political direction (indirizzo politico costituzionale), 163
constitutional theory:
constitutive conventions, 229nn113, 115;
integration theory, 138–39, 140, 197;
psychological level, 138–39;
Constitution and Constitutional Law (Smend), 158
The Constitution in the Material Sense (Mortati), 154–78;
conventionalist interpretation in, 170–74;
juristic idea of the constitution in the material sense, 154, 159–60, 175;
realist version of legal institutionalism in, 141–54
Continental jurisprudence, 54
contract, original, 23–24
contractualism, 25, 171
conventionalist interpretation, 171–74, 228n110
conventional rules, 228–29n111, 229nn113, 115
conviction, 172–73
corporations:
definitions, 207n32;
Genossenschaft view of, 21–26, 32;
as interest groups, 33;
as stable associations, 23
corporatism, 209n56, 225n72;
defined, 33;
German, 18;
macro-actors, 32–33, 36–38;
pluralism mixed with, 40–42;
rise of, 34–35, 155;
Romano’s view, 56. See also state
“corporatist function,” 158–59
Corpus Iuris Civilis (Justinian), 16
coupledom, noninstitutionalized, 78–79
Cours de science sociale. La science sociale traditionnelle (Hauriou), 66
Cover, Robert, 230n129
criminal law, 101–2, 111, 164
cultural pluralism, 180
customary laws, 15, 46
customs, 16, 28, 46, 77, 83, 186
Das Staatsrecht des Deutschen Reiches (Laband), 19
decisionism, 9, 44–45, 48, 80, 87, 100–104, 109–11, 120–27, 132–33, 186, 193–94, 199–200, 200–201, 223n46;
act of deciding among judges, 102–3;
institutionalist, 117–24;
limits of, 125–26;
sovereignty and, 104–6, 110, 115, 117, 120, 122–26, 185. See also Schmitt, Carl
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789, France), 153
definitional stop, 91
democratic order, 35
destiny of law, 2–3, 113
differentiation:
Duguit’s theory, 39;
intermediate bodies and, 179–81;
labor division, 167;
Llewelyn’s theory, 85;
nomic force and, 166;
ordering processes, 144–45, 177;
political parties and, 166–67, 169–70, 173, 177–78;
popular sovereignty and, 175–78;
relevance and, 89–90;
of ruling class, 166–67;
self-differentiation, 10, 184, 195, 197
“differentium,” 75–76
“directing idea” (ideé directrice), 121–22, 150 (p.238)
directive power (furstliche Gewalt), 158
Duguit, Léon, 3, 37–49, 51, 66;
functional representation, 41–42, 56
Durkheim, Émile, 37
Ehrlich, Eugen, 3, 43–49, 93–94, 210n84
emergency, 181–82
enforcement, 142, 145
epistemic understanding of law, 109, 147
ethnic identity, 133–34
Europe:
changes between eighteenth and nineteenth century, 5, 31;
changes between nineteenth and twentieth century, 1–3, 8, 13–15, 17, 29–31, 200;
globalizing waves, 200. See also France; Germany; Italy
everyday life, level of, 42–43, 99, 103–6, 124, 128, 186
exceptionalism, 7, 9, 100–111, 114–17, 120–23, 130, 133, 181, 193–94, 204n5, 216n1;
as analogous to miracle in theology, 106–7, 194, 201;
as borderline concept, 104;
institutional attitude within, 110;
overemphasis on normality and, 105–6;
shortcomings of, 115–17. See also Schmitt, Carl
executive function. See governing function
exemplar instances, 123
family, legal category of, 78–79
fascism, 136–37, 212n2;
constitutional questions of, 156–57;
functioning of, 140;
as subsumed under state, 167–68
Fascist Party, 137, 167, 212n2;
monoparty system, 168–69
federalism, 25, 32, 56, 115–16
fellowship. See Genossenschaft
Figgis, John N., 209n66
formalism, 29–30, 98, 226n76
Frammenti di un dizionario giuridico (Fragments of a legal dictionary) (Romano), 82–88, 97
France:
Ancien Régime, 15, 55, 188;
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, 153;
post-revolutionary legal codes, 15
Free Law Movement, 3, 42–44, 210–11n84;
as break with positivism, 42–43, 48
French Revolution, 2, 15–16, 27, 188;
origin of state in, 55
French thought, 149–50;
Duguit’s, 37–49
friend-enemy criterion, 106–9, 111, 114–15, 119, 217–18n10;
obedience principle and, 167;
performative conception of, 107–8;
positive component of friendship neglected, 123–24
function, organizational, 82–88
functionalism, 3, 38, 41, 84–87, 131
functional representation, 41–42, 56
Galanter, Marc, 73–76, 95
games used as explanation, 80, 127–28, 229n115
general clauses, 131–34
generalization, 85–86, 104
general policy, 165, 226–27n87, 226n86
Genossenschaft (fellowship), 21–26, 32, 206–7n27
Gény, François, 43, 211n85
geohistorical contexts, 1, 91–92, 206n22;
juristic-political continuum and, 5–7;
Romano’s view, 72–75, 93–94
(p.239)
Gerber, Carl Friedrich von, 17–18, 21, 27, 206n19
German theory, 2, 14–20, 32, 112–13;
corporatism, 18;
German Historical School of Jurisprudence, 15–17, 19, 26, 42–43;
Nazi establishment and, 125, 127;
Roman law and doctrinaire concepts, 16–17;
Volksgeist (spirit of the people), 17, 26, 27, 29, 56. See also Schmitt, Carl
Germany:
Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch of 1900, 132;
ethnic identity, 133;
general clauses, 131–34;
German civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch), 43;
Nazi establishment, 125, 127, 132–33;
Second Reich, 19, 21;
Weimar context, 138
Gesetz und Urteil (Statute and judgment) (Schmitt), 102
Gierke, Otto von, 3, 18–19, 20–26, 32, 36–37, 44, 51, 187–88, 209n66;
sovereignty, view of, 22–23
global legal pluralism, 201–2
good life, 12
governing function, 227n93;
“conclusive moment,” 158;
four characteristics of, 159;
juridical terrain and, 158;
nomic force and, 156, 159, 162, 165–66;
object of, 161–66;
political direction (indirizzo politico), 10, 157, 163–64, 226nn76, 86;
political unity and, 155–61;
suprema potestas, 140, 160
governing/ruling class, 29–31, 34, 166, 170, 177, 182–83, 208n52
government (Regierung), 158
Gramsci, Antonio, 158–59, 167, 224n56, 226n76, 227n97
great automaton (homo artificialis), 23
Great Council of Fascism (Italy), 160, 220n1
Griffiths, John, 92–93
group-based practices, 24–25, 84–87, 118, 187
Grundzüge des deutschen Staatsrechts (Gerber), 206n19
guild socialism, 3, 36, 209–10n66. See also associations
guilt, concept of, 101
harmonism, 39, 47
Hart, H. L. A., 63–64, 73–74
Hauriou, Maurice, 9, 14, 65–66, 98, 121–23, 150, 232n9
Hegel, G. W. F., 37, 112
hegemony, 178–79, 227n97, 228n105, 230n132. See also ruling class
Heller, Hermann, 138–40
Herrschaft, 21–22
hierarchy, 145
Hintze, Otto, 21
historical standpoint, 15–16, 21, 58
Hobbes, Thomas, 23, 187
homogeneity, political:
artificial creation of, 138–40;
Malberg’s view, 150;
Mortati’s view, 10, 138–40, 150, 159, 166, 170, 173–74, 180–81, 194–96;
Nazi Germany and, 133–34;
Schmitt’s view, 100, 112, 131–34, 180–81, 194
homogeneity, social, 133–34, 138–40, 159, 181, 199
Hugo, Gustav, 15–16
Hume, David, 142, 228n110
identity:
ethnic, 133–34;
jural relationships and, 78;
personal, 12;
plural, 81
ideologies, political parties and, 167
Il diritto dei privati (The law of private subjects) (Cesarini Sforza), 76
imperativist conception of law, 150–51, 165, 170, 172, 197 (p.240)
indigenous and exogenous orderings, 73–74
individual:
beliefs of, 122–23;
as isolated legal subject, 55–56
institution:
as already organized unity, 143–44, 150;
borderline cases, 76–77;
couple, romantic, 78–79;
formal structure of, 65–73;
generalization and, 85–86;
Gierke’s view, 23;
Hauriou’s view, 65–67;
indigenous and exogenous orderings, 73–74;
jural relationships, 76–82;
legal nature of, 66–68;
as legal order, 69–71, 89;
nomic force of, 5, 69–72;
nonstate forms of law and, 72–76;
not produced by law, 122;
objective conception of, 73–78;
as objective law, 87–88;
protolegal character, 67, 122;
semantic status in German, 125;
teleological elements, 141–42, 144, 153, 161–66. See also associations; corporation
institutionalism, 186, 203–4n3;
concrete-order and formation thinking, 9, 100, 101, 110–17, 111, 125–30;
decisionism vs., 117–24, 133;
Hariou’s, 14, 65–67;
pluralism linked with, 11, 52, 58, 61–65, 70, 89, 128;
politicization of, 121;
realist, 147, 175–76, 178;
realist version, 141–54. See also legal institutionalism
institutional pluralism, 180, 182
institutional standards, 130–31
An Institutional Theory of Law (MacCormick and Weinberger), 203–4n3
integration theory, 138–39, 140, 197
intelligibility condition, 61–65
interdependence, 34, 40–41, 76
intermediary institutions, 58–59, 152, 179–81, 221n13
international law, 81
interpretation, 147;
institutional facts, 203–4n3
Italian theory, 29–31;
Italy:
anti-Fascist resistance, 170;
constitution, republican, 141, 175;
constitution of 1848, 137;
Council of State, 53;
Fascist regime, 136–37, 154, 167, 175;
Great Council of Fascism, 160, 220n1;
multiclass state, rise of, 138;
red biennium (1919–1920), 137, 220n5;
republican phase, 175;
Senate reform proposal, 41, 56
ius civile, 4, 75
judges:
Free Law Movement and, 43;
as “viva vox legis,” 102. See also decisionism; jurisprudence; jurists
judicial normality, 102–3
jural relationships, 76–82, 214n49;
generalizations and, 86–87
juridical norms, 148, 160, 176–77, 224n57, 228n109
juridico-political scenarios, 2, 6–7, 30
juridification of state, 19–21, 27
jurisgenesis, 105, 109, 175, 197, 230n129
jurisprudence:
as autonomous discipline, 13, 19–20, 60, 67–68;
in Germany, contested nature of, 14–20;
historical standpoint, 15–16, 21, 58;
purity of, 19–20, 32, 105, 189–91, 196;
as technical tool, 28, 42, 44, 49, 60. See also legal science
jurisprudential point of view, 49–50, 52;
juristic point of view vs., 13–14;
production of, 31–32
(p.241)
Juristenrecht (jurists’ law), 16, 43, 186–87
juristic, as term, 24
juristic order, 21, 24–25, 187–88
juristic point of view, 4–5, 8, 13–14, 49–50, 52, 59, 95–96, 185, 187–91;
exclusion of nonlegal approaches, 9;
jurisprudential point of view vs., 13–14;
material sense of constitution and, 154, 159–60, 175;
in Mortati’s work, 154;
nonlegal concepts to be avoided, 60;
openness to autonomy of nonstate actors, 32;
political vs., 4–5, 100, 185, 186–90, 195;
in Romano’s work, 60, 72–73;
as between the social and the legal, 24
juristic-political continuum, 4–7, 199
juristic science, 6–8, 48
jurists’ law (Juristenrecht), 16, 43, 186–87
jurists:
pyramidal edifice, 133;
as “readers” of the social, 42;
as state officials, 5, 44, 46, 94–95, 189–90;
unifying function of, 28. See also judges
jus belli, 113
“Justice in Many Rooms” (Galanter), 73–76
Justinian, 16
Kant, Immanuel, 37
Kantorowicz, Hermann, 3
Kelsen, Hans, 60, 100, 105–6, 109, 147–48, 189, 191, 206n22, 217n7
knowledge, legal, 5–8, 13–15, 143, 147–48, 165, 185–86, 198, 201
Krebs, Thomas, 132
Laband, Paul, 18–20, 26, 27, 102, 187, 206n22
labor relations, 56
Labriola, Arturo, 34
language of the law, 8–9, 15–16, 68
Laski, Harold J., 3, 209n66
“La théorie de l’institution et de la fondation” (Hauriou), 66
Lavagna, Carlo, 226–27n87
law:
autonomy of, 3–4, 10, 134, 171;
changed through Romano’s theorizing, 54;
conciliatory role of, 26, 27;
as coordination mechanism, 128–29;
developmental trajectory of, 127;
epistemic understanding of, 109, 147;
formal, 45, 49, 204n3;
grand theory of, 62;
as independent of state, 91, 95, 106, 134–35;
as institutional complex, 80;
as intelligibility condition, 61–65;
juristic vs. political conceptions of, 4–5, 100, 185, 186–90, 195;
as language of organization, 8–9;
nonofficial dimension of, 44;
as norms issued by state, 28;
objective, 37;
official, 24, 45–46, 93;
organizational activity as, 67;
origin of, 37, 42, 105–6, 185, 190;
political (diritto politico), 10, 165, 227n90;
political conceptions of, 4–6, 9–10, 100, 147, 153, 185, 188–89;
as process of organization, 60–61, 65, 83–84, 96;
reconciling theory and practice, 45–46;
sanction-based theories, 64;
as self-organizing activity, 51–52, 94;
as self-referential, 191–92;
as self-standing entity, 63, 195, 232n10;
as sieve, 124–34;
state as creation of, 55, 58;
state-based, 2, 4, 8, 25, 37, 41, 44, 46, 51, 88, 99, 117, 153, 187;
statutory, 18–19, 43–45, 93–94, 99, 102, 157;
structural, 5, 31;
subjective (p.242) and objective conceptions of, 87–88;
“Law and the Social Sciences” (Llewellyn), 84
Law & Economics, 204n3
law in movement, 163–64
law-jobs, 84–85, 95–98
law of associations, 3, 45–46, 48
law professors’ law (Professorenrecht), 16, 186–87
Law School of the University of Palermo, 29
leadership, 132–34, 199
left wing culture, 34
legal anthropology, 91–92
legal centralism, 75, 92–93
legal certainty, 22n26, 144, 146
legal consciousness, 16, 27, 42, 75, 186–87
legal effects, 90
legal institutionalism, 2–3, 7, 185, 190, 222n33, 232n9;
classic, 2, 203n3;
institutional facts, 203–4n3;
integrative form of, 176;
of Mortati, 141–54;
legality, state as source of, 13–14, 17
legal knowledge, 3–8, 13–15, 143, 147–48, 165, 185–86, 201
legal normativity, 24–25, 38–40, 42, 46–48, 63, 142–43
legal orders:
basic norms, 105, 147–48, 165, 222–23n37;
bearer of, 149–50, 166, 169, 176;
concrete study of, 146;
creational moment of, 104, 107–9, 158;
as emanating from state, 19–20, 54;
ends of, criminal law and, 101–2;
fact-based analysis of, 148–50;
five building blocks of, 144–45;
formal structure of, 105;
games used as explanation, 80, 127–28, 229n115;
institutions as, 69–71, 89;
introjection of general political aim into, 164–65;
as jural relationships, 76–79, 81–82, 86–87, 214n49;
as main unit of analysis, 141;
norms, decisions, and institutions required, 126–27;
plurality of, 75, 94, 145;
relevance of, 87–97;
revolution as antilegal fact, 97;
as self-standing entities, 63, 195, 232n10;
sovereign, 145–46. See also order
The Legal Order (Romano), 8, 54, 61–65;
formal structure of institutions in, 65–73;
notion of order in, 80–82;
objective conception of institution in, 73–78;
organizational function, view of, 82–88;
panlegalist predicament and relevance in, 88–97;
second edition, 62, 71
legal pluralism, 12, 75, 92–96;
deep, 93–94. See also pluralism
legal positivism. See positivism
legal relations, 16–17, 77–78, 85, 87, 90, 94, 96–97, 138, 197
legal rules:
disobedience and enforcement of norms, 144–45, 222n21
legal science, 18, 27–28, 48, 185–86;
autonomy of, 7, 10, 134;
German, 14–15;
modified after Nazi takeover, 127;
as political agenda, 46;
pure theory of law, 105;
unifying function of, 28, 105. See also jurisprudence
legal theory:
as privileged approach, 53;
reality, juristic view of, 8, 60;
separation from other disciplines, 13, 19–20, 60, 67–68;
legal theory as discipline, 13–50, 186–87;
borders of, 13–14;
German views, 2, 14–20, 32;
Italian theory, 29–31;
pluralism in action, 31–36;
pluralism in theory, 36–49;
separation from other disciplines, 13, 19–20, 60, 67–68
legislative power, 2, 27–28, 187, 188
legislator, as “reader” of the social, 42
Leone, Enrico, 34
liberal-constitutional state, 30–31, 51, 58–61, 88;
changes in, 54, 155;
continuous amendment possible, 59;
European legal orders, variation in, 155;
legal theory’s role in adjustment of, 60–61;
state-based law as detrimental to, 88
liberalism. See political liberalism
living law, 44–49, 80, 175
Llewellyn, Karl, 84–87, 95–96
Loewenstein, Karl, 233n16
Loughlin, Martin, 61, 103, 167, 219n16, 223n46, 227n93
Luhmann, Niklas, 191, 192, 232n8, 232n12
MacCormick, Neil, 203–4n3
Machen, Arthur, 207n32
Machiavelli, Nicolò, 224n56
macro-actors, 32–33, 36–38
Mafia, 227n100
Maitland, Frederic William, 24, 206–7n27, 209n66
Malinowski, Bronisław, 41, 91–92
Marmor, Andrei, 171, 228–29n111
married couple example, 78–79
Marshall, T. H., 197
masses, 180
material constitution, 9–10, 154–78, 190–91, 197–98, 200–201, 222n31, 229n113;
absolute discretion, 157, 225n69;
conventionalist interpretation, 170–74;
governing function and political unity, 155–61;
homogeneity and, 10, 150, 159, 166, 170, 173–74, 194–96;
juristic point of view and, 154, 159–60, 175;
political direction (indirizzo politico), 10, 157, 163–64, 226nn76, 86;
political parties and subjects of, 166–74, 177;
separation of powers and, 156, 158–59, 225n67. See also Mortati, Costantino
mediation, 167–68
medieval law, 25, 32, 55, 75
membership, 80–81, 92
metamorphosis:
formal, in conflicts, 107–8, 113, 119;
normative, 79–83, 95
meta-orders, 17, 89
metaphysical understanding of state, 37, 41, 115
militant order, 197, 233n16
“Modern State and Its Crisis” (“Lo Stato moderno e la sua crisi” (Romano), 1–2, 8, 54–61, 67, 92, 188, 192;
critique of pluralist theories in, 60–61
monads, 37, 112
monarchy, 20, 22–23
monistic views, 12, 36–37, 52, 117–19, 133, 194
monoparty system, 168–69, 177
Moore, Sally Falk, 92
morality, 47, 48, 70–71, 73–74, 89, 96, 179, 187;
concrete order and, 129–30
(p.244)
Mortati, Costantino, 2, 136–83, 190–91, 220n3, 228n109;
background, 136–37, 140–41;
basic norms, view of, 147–48, 165, 222–23n37;
bearer of legal order, view of, 149–50, 166, 169, 176;
in Christian Democratic Party, 141;
consensus, view of, 7, 9–10;
Constituent Assembly interventions, 141, 170–71, 228n105, 231nn141, 143;
constituent power theory, 141, 172, 174–78, 195–97, 229–30n122, 230nn126, 129;
in Fascist regime, 140–41;
homogeneity, view of, 10, 138–40, 150, 159, 166, 170, 173–74, 180–81, 194–96;
imperativist conception of law, 150–51, 165, 170, 172, 197;
“is and ought,” synthesis of, 142, 148–49, 222n26;
legal knowledge, view of, 143, 147–48, 165, 185–86;
legal order, view of, 222–23n37, 222nn28, 33;
political compromise, view of, 169–71;
political homogeneity, view of, 10, 138–40, 170, 173–74, 194–96;
realist institutionalism, 147, 175–76, 178;
realist version of legal institutionalism, 141–54;
Romano’s influence on, 141, 146–47;
ruling class definition, 228n107;
Schmitt, engagement with, 149, 152, 167, 223n41;
social normativity in thought of, 152–53, 159, 178, 180;
Works: The Constitution in the Material Sense, 141, 165;
essays, 173;
L’ordinamento del governo, 157. See also material constitution
Mosca, Gaetano, 29–31, 208n52
multiculturalism, 12
municipal law, 189
Mussolini, Benito, 53, 212n2, 220n1
mythical source of law, 37–38, 68
nation-state, 56, 150
naturalism, 26
Natural Law and the Theory of Society (Gierke), 24
Nazi establishment, 125, 127, 132–33
negation, 111, 176
Negri, Antonio, 176, 230n129
neutrality of state, 111–12, 115
nomic force, 4–6, 69–72, 185–87;
constituent power and, 175–76;
governing function and, 156, 159, 162, 165–66;
of jural relationships, 76;
three variations versus the material, 190–98. See also normativity
nonstate forms of law, 72–76, 91–93. See also associations
normal cases, 104–5, 110, 120–23, 131, 186
normality:
as byproduct of decision, 104;
institutional standards and, 130–31;
judicial, 102–4;
overemphasis on, 105–6;
as set of general models of conduct, 120–21. See also exceptionalism
“The Normative, the Legal and the Law-Jobs” (Llewellyn), 85, 95–96
normative facts, 83, 144, 176–77, 195
normative metamorphosis, 79–83, 95
normativism, 104, 125–29
normativity, 5–6, 63;
factual circumstances and, 80;
generalization and, 85–86;
group-based practices, 24–25, 84–85, 118, 187;
levels of, 99;
normative facts, 83, 144, 176–77, 195;
regime of, 24;
social and legal, dividing line between, 38–40, 42, 47–48. See also nomic force; social normativity
(p.245)
norms:
for decision, 44–45, 48;
legal, 122–23;
primary vs. secondary power-conferring norms, 64–65, 71, 73–74;
system of, 143–46;
as type of juristic thought, 126
obedience, 144–45, 166–67, 173, 222n21
objective conception of institution, 73–78
objective law, 37–40
occasionalism, 178
On the Three Types of Juristic Thought (Schmitt), 80, 121, 126–30
ontology:
legal, 196;
social, 112, 118, 148–49
organicism, 17–19, 68, 162, 207n32;
deadlock with pluralism, 20–26
organic links, loss of, 138
organization, as process, 5, 60–61, 65, 83–84, 96
organizational function, 82–88
organizations:
diffuse vs. solid, 76–77, 81–82;
legal interaction of, 8–9;
observable traits of, 68–69
organized entities:
inner law, 8–9, 37–38, 45, 48, 69–70, 72;
as legal by dint of being organized, 8–9
Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele, 26–32, 53, 155–56, 228n105
pacification, 26, 27
Pandektenrecht, 16
panlegalism, 90–91, 94, 97
Panunzio, Sergio, 158–59, 225n72, 226n76
parliament:
popular consciousness and, 27;
substate threats to, 3, 32–36, 41, 56, 155
parties. See political parties
path dependency, 155
Paulsson, Jan, 61
Pelloutier, Fernand, 35
performative citation, 108
person, level of, 179–80
persona civitatis, 23
persona ficta, 21
personality, legal, 24, 205n15, 206n19;
of corporation, 207n32;
of Genossenschaft, 25–26
personality of state, 17, 20–21, 54–55, 205n15
perspectival technique, 89–90, 95–96
philological interest, 16
pluralism:
in action, 31–36;
as conceptual paradigm, 13;
as concrete phenomenon, 13;
constitutional, 202;
corporatism mixed with, 40–42;
cultural, 180;
deep, 11;
dissolution inherent in, 9;
English theory, 209n66;
institutional, 180, 182;
institutionalism linked with, 11, 52, 58, 61–65, 70, 89, 128;
late nineteenth-century accounts of, 2;
material constitution mediates, 154–55;
militant, 35;
as ongoing threat of dissolution, 9, 100, 115, 178;
organicist deadlock and, 20–26;
parts of the whole, 25–26;
political, 3, 52, 119, 172, 175, 179;
“polytheistic” view of, 11;
radical, 1–3, 10, 12, 152, 181;
rise of, 12–13;
risks of, 114–15;
Schmitt’s novel critique to, 126–30;
scholarly interest in, 209n56;
social, 3, 52–53, 94, 112, 119, 137, 157, 179–81, 200;
social movements, 33–36;
theoretical, (p.246) 52;
in theory, 36–49. See also corporatism; legal pluralism
pluralist state, 1, 26, 41, 112, 115. See also state
plurality in unity, 26, 81–82, 115–18
plural juristic orders, 21
point of view, 72
polemogenic process, 106–8, 123, 217–18n10
pòlemos, 108, 113
political, the:
as conceptual category, 113;
juristic vs., 4–5, 100, 185, 186–90, 195;
oriented toward internal politics, 119
political class, 208n52, 230n132
political compromise, 169–71
political conceptions of law, 4–6, 9–10, 100, 147, 153, 185, 188–89
political direction (indirizzo politico), 10, 157, 163–64, 226nn76, 86
“political formula,” 30
political jurisprudence, 103
political law (diritto politico), 10, 165, 227n90
political liberalism, 11
political parties, 27;
constitutional order and, 165–68, 174;
differentiation and, 166–67, 169–70, 173, 177–78;
ideologies and, 167;
material constitution and, 166–74, 177;
monoparty system, 168–69, 177;
premodern vs. modern, 167
political pluralism, 3, 52, 119, 172, 175, 179
political realm:
as site of conflicts and divisions, 27
political science, 30
Political Theology (Schmitt), 104–11, 121, 125;
as conceptual critique of legal positivism, 105–6
politics:
state as destiny of, 3, 113. See also juristic-political continuum
polytheistic view of pluralism, 11
“position,” as term, 70
positivism, 17–26, 70, 142, 187;
coercion, view of, 64;
conceptual critique of, 105–6, 109;
constituent power, view of, 175;
formal structure, view of, 105;
Free Law Movement as break with, 42–43, 48;
general clauses supersede, 131–34;
Genossenschaft and Herrschaft, 21–22;
imperativist conception of law, 150–51, 165, 170, 172, 197;
of Laband, 18–19, 206n22;
logical-deductive mode, 21;
Romano’s, 88–89, 128;
Schmitt’s response to, 104–6, 109–11, 115, 126–32
Pospisil, Leopold, 92
power, state, 18–19, 26–28, 168
Précis de droit constitutionnel (Hauriou), 66
Primo trattato completo di diritto amministrativo italiano (First complete treatise on Italian administrative law) (Orlando, Romano), 53
Principes de droit public (Principles of public law) (Hauriou), 66, 121–22
Principii di diritto costituzionale (Principles of constitutional law) (Romano), 190–91
Prison Notebooks (Gramsci), 158–59
private law, 17–21, 152–53, 206n19;
public law used to explain, 62–63
Professorenrecht (law professors’ law), 16, 186–87
psychological level, 138–39
public law, 152–53, 227n93;
German conceptions of, 17–26;
Italian conceptions of, 26–31;
political acts as administrative acts, 155–56; (p.247)
services, 38;
as study of state law, 27;
unity as goal of, 57
punishment, 111, 129. See also sanction
pure theory of law, 19–20, 32, 105, 189–91, 196
radical pluralism, 1–3, 10, 12, 152, 181
Rawls, John, 11
realism, 136;
legal institutionalist version, 141–54
realist institutionalism, 147, 175–76, 178
reality:
institution as framework for law, 84–85;
juristic view of, 8, 60;
social, 112
Rechtslebe (living law). See living law
Rechtssatz (legal proposition), 44
Rechtsstaat, 32
red biennium (1919–1920), 220n5
reductionism, 42, 56–59, 195
reform movements, 34, 41, 56–57, 133
regions, constitutional order, 180
relevance, 88–97
religious substate bodies, 12
representation, 27, 110, 166;
functional, 41–42. See also political parties
revolution:
as confrontation of two orders, 98;
Romano’s view, 54–57, 97–98
revolutionary state, 55–56
Roman law approach, 16–18;
ius civile, 4, 75;
persona ficta, 21
Romano, Santi, 6, 51–98, 187–88;
administrative law, approach toward, 53–54, 225n66;
background for, 50;
on constitutional flaws, 59;
in Fascist Party, 212n2, 225n66;
formative influences on, 53;
functionalism of, 84–85;
on Hauriou’s thought, 67;
impact on development of law, 52, 60;
juristic point of view in, 60, 72–73, 185, 190;
law as intelligibility condition, 61–65;
legal theory as technique of description, 52–53, 128, 190–92;
married couple example, 78–79;
misreadings of, 79–81, 94–95;
nomic and material, view of, 5;
normative metamorphosis, 79–83;
objective conception of institution, 73–78;
order, notion of, 78–82;
organizational function, view of, 82–88;
panlegalism of, 90–91, 94, 97;
personality of state, view of, 54–55;
point of view as concept, 72;
presidency of the Council of State, 53;
primacy of state law attributed to, 52;
primary vs. secondary power-conferring norms, 64–65, 71, 73–74;
relevance, concept of, 88–97;
Schmitt’s misinterpretation of, 79–8, 121, 128;
separation between institutions and their legal structure, 67;
signature works, 54;
state, support for, 56–61, 94–95;
state as form that secures justice and equality, 56–57;
state-individual dyad, 55–56, 58;
translation vs. regulation, 6, 51–98, 90, 97, 191–93;
twofold nature of law in, 8–9;
Works: Frammenti di un dizionario giuridico (Fragments of a legal dictionary), 82–88, 97;
The Legal Order, 8, 54, 61–97;
“The Modern State and Its Crisis” (“Lo Stato moderno e la sua crisi”), 1–2, 8, 54–61, 67, 188, 192;
Principii di diritto costituzionale (Principles of constitutional law), 190–91;
“Studies on the Concept, the Sources and the Characteristics of Law,” 62
Rorty, Richard, 11
Ross, Alf, 147–48 (p.248)
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 37
rules of conduct (standardizing rules), 37–40, 42–46, 62–63, 80, 93
ruling class, 166–67, 177, 228n107
The Ruling Class (Mosca), 30–31
Salvatore, Andrea, 101–2
sanction, 129, 144–45, 224n57;
imperativist conception of law, 150–51;
Romano’s view, 64–65;
social censorship, 38–39. See also coercion; punishment
Savigny, Friedrich Carl von, 15, 20, 27, 31, 57–58, 188–89
Schmitt, Carl, 2, 98, 99–135, 223n41;
borderline and normal cases, concept of, 104–5, 110, 131, 186;
changes in thinking of, 5–6, 9, 100–101, 109–10, 119;
concrete-order and formation thinking, 9, 100, 101, 110–17, 125–30, 193, 201;
constitutional theory of, 114–15, 119–20, 136;
decisionist theory of, 9, 80, 87, 100–104, 109–11, 117, 120–27, 132–33, 185, 186, 190, 193–94, 200–201, 223n46;
exceptionalism of, 7, 9, 100–111, 120–23, 130;
institutionalism vs. decisionism, 117–24, 133, 186;
materiality, view of, 5–6;
misinterpretation of Romano, 79–81, 121, 128;
monistic views, rejection of, 117–19;
Mortati’s engagement with, 149, 152, 167, 223n41;
nomic force, view of, 5–6, 69–72;
normal situation, 9, 120;
novel critique to pluralism, 126–30;
political jurisprudence of, 103;
positivism, response to, 104–6, 109–11, 115, 126–32;
Romano, view of, 121, 127–28;
traces of institutionalism in, 100–104;
Works: The Concept of the Political, 104, 106–17;
Constitutional Theory, 119–20;
Freiheitsrechte und institutionelle Garantien der Reichsverfassung (The liberty rights and the institutional guarantees of the Reich Constitution), 120;
Gesetz und Urteil (Statute and judgment), 102;
Grundrechte und Grundpflichten (Basic rights and basic duties), 120;
Political Theology, 104–11, 121, 125;
Roman Catholicism and Political Form, 110;
State, Movement, People, 132;
“State Ethics and the Pluralist State,” 112, 117–24, 126;
On the Three Types of Juristic Thought, 80, 121, 126–30;
Über Schuld und Schuldarten (On guilt and types of guilt), 101
Schmitter, Philippe, 33–34
Searle, John R., 203–4n3
secondary power-conferring norms, 64–65, 71, 73–74
self-organization, 3, 18–19, 36, 41, 44–45, 51–52, 57, 83, 125;
as common element of different organizations, 60;
“directing idea” and, 122;
law as activity of, 94
semiautonomous substate bodies, 2, 12, 34, 92, 209n66
separation of powers, 156, 158–59, 225n67
Smend, Rudolf, 138–40, 149–50, 158, 162, 176, 223n46
social, as legally indifferent, 21
social change, 54–58
social consciousness, 27, 42, 149–50, 162
social contract, 23–25, 171
social fields, 92
Socialist Party, 35
social law, 152 (p.249)
social movements, 33–36
social normativity, 9, 24, 99, 184, 230n129;
in Duguit’s thought, 39–40, 42, 44, 47–49;
institutionalism and, 117, 122;
legal norms as subset of, 63;
in Mortati’s thought, 152–53, 159, 178, 180. See also differentiation; normativity; self-organization
social order, 48, 69, 71, 92–93, 138–39, 142, 149, 152;
three levels of, 179–80
social pluralism, 52–53, 94, 112, 119, 137, 157, 179–81, 200
social practices, 6, 9–10, 76, 79, 117, 135, 139–40, 184–86, 195, 199;
group-based, 24–25, 84–85, 118, 187
societal constitutionalism, 197, 232n12, 234n9;
internal relation, consideration of, 139, 142–43, 146, 161, 166, 192
society:
as institution, 69;
as set of narrow groupings, 39;
state as one with, 28–29
sociolegal studies, 3, 91, 200
sociological realism, 57, 59, 84–87, 143
sociological theories, 71, 151
Sorel, George, 35, 209n60
sovereignty:
decisions and, 104–6, 110, 115, 117, 120, 122–26, 185, 199;
dependence on nonstate entities, 24–25;
French theories, 37;
general theory, tenability of, 104;
Gierke’s view, 22;
legal orders and, 145–46;
legislative, 27–28;
popular, and constituent power, 174–78;
state identified with, 2–3, 22–23, 206n19
sovereign will of state, 2–3, 19–20, 206n19
specialization, 13–14, 49, 73–75, 90, 95–98, 201
specification, 167, 181
spontaneity, as danger, 130, 133–34
Staff, Ilse, 220n3
standardizing rules (rules of conduct), 37–40, 42–46, 62–63, 80, 93
standards, institutional, 130–31
state:
administrative, 3, 12, 29;
as association of associations, 115–16, 121;
associations as necessary to, 92–93;
associations as threat to, 3, 9, 32–36, 41, 56, 100, 115, 178;
conditioned on political, 112–13;
as corrupted and hegemonic construct, 3;
as creation of law, 55, 58;
as destiny of politics, 3, 113;
diffuse vs. solid, 76–77, 81–82;
ethical claim of, 3, 18, 72, 128–29, 134, 194;
as form that secures justice and equality, 56–57;
fourth function of, 140, 158–59, 161;
as holder of legislative sovereignty, 27–28;
idealization of, 32;
as ideological abstraction, 45;
as institution, 67;
juridification of, 19–21, 27;
late nineteenth-century challenges to, 1–3;
law as independent of, 91, 95, 106, 134–35;
legal order of, 19, 54;
legal positivism, 17;
as legal product, 27;
legislative, 2;
metaphysical understanding of, 37, 41, 115;
monistic views of, 12, 36–37, 52, 117–19, 133, 194;
monopoly on extreme case, 115–17;
neutrality, 111–12, 115;
nonstate aggregates ignored by, 55–56;
as one with society, 28–29;
as organism, 18–19, 24, 26, 68, 162, 207n32;
personality of, 17, 20–21, 54–55, 205n15;
pluralist, 1, 26, 41, 112, 115;
plurality in unity, 26, 81–82, 115;
power of, 18–19, (p.250) 26–28, 168;
public services, 38, 41–42;
rehabilitation of, 40–41;
revolutionary, 55–56;
sanctification of, 37;
as source of legality, 13–14, 17, 91;
sovereignty identified with, 2–3, 22–23, 206n19;
as species of the genus ‘law,’ 57;
state-based law, 2, 4, 8, 25, 37, 41, 44, 46, 51, 88, 99, 117, 153, 187;
as supersubject, 17–18, 23;
territory and population, 20, 34, 41, 56, 151;
as transitory configuration of the political, 113;
as unity, 78, 80–82;
unity of as fiction, 1–2, 75;
will of, 18–20. See also corporatism; pluralist state
statecraft strategies, 88
“State Ethics and the Pluralist State” (Schmitt), 112, 117–24, 126
state-individual dyad, 55–56, 58
state law pluralism, 93
state of exception. See exceptionalism
state officials, 5, 44, 46, 94–95, 189–90
state-person, 17, 20–23, 26–29, 31–32, 36–38, 46;
Romano’s view, 55–56
statutory law, 18–19, 43–45, 93–94, 99, 102, 157.
Stolleis, Michael, 206n22
Stone, Julius, 88
structural couplings, 192
“Studies on the Concept, the Sources and the Characteristics of Law” (Romano), 62
subjective will, 232n9
substate bodies:
alternative forms of self-government, 56;
parliament, threats to, 3, 32–36, 41, 56, 155;
rules of conduct (standardizing rules), 39–40, 42–46, 93;
semiautonomous, 2, 12, 34, 92, 209n66;
state neutrality and, 111–12. See also associations
subversive political culture, 34
supersubject, state as, 17–18, 23
suprema potestas, 140, 160
supreme political values, 162
syndicalism, 35, 41
system, notion of, 99–110, 134
systems theory, 1, 3, 16, 96, 134, 232n11;
Luhmann’s, 191–92, 232nn8, 12.
technical tool, jurisprudence as, 28, 42, 44, 49, 60
telos/aims and principles, 141–42, 144, 153, 161–66, 197
threats:
associations as threat to state, 3, 9, 32–36, 41, 56, 100, 115, 178;
friend-enemy criterion and, 106–9, 111, 114–15, 119, 123–24, 167, 217–18n10
totalitarianism, 2, 151, 200
transcendentalism, 126, 127
translation vs. regulation, 6, 51–98, 90, 97, 191–93
transnational regimes, 201
Trobriand Islanders, 91
Twining, William, 91
Über öffentliche Rechte (Gerber), 206n19
Über Schuld und Schuldarten (On guilt and types of guilt) (Schmitt), 101
unions, 35, 41, 56
unity:
governing function and, 155–61;
institution as already organized, 143–44, 150;
plurality in, 26, 81–82, 115–18;
state as, 78, 80–82;
of state as fiction, 1–2, 75
value pluralism, 205n4
Van Caenegem, Raul, 31
vertical integration, 34
Vinx, Lars, 108–9 (p.251)
violence, 33–34, 41;
formal metamorphosis and, 107–8;
jus belli, 113;
as means to the destruction of political authority, 35. See also conflict
Volksgeist (spirit of the people), 17, 26, 27, 29, 56
voluntary legal orders, 66, 83, 122, 172–73, 196, 222n28
von Gierke, Otto, 3
“weak” legal pluralism, 93
Weber, Max, 3, 11–12, 92
Weimar epoch, 138–39
Weimar Republic and constitution, 173–74
Weinberger, O, 203–4n3
“What Is Legal Pluralism?” (Griffiths), 92–93
will of state, 18–20
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 218n15
Woodman, Gordon, 93, 216n87
working class, 34–35
Zeitschrift für geschichtliche Rechtswissenschaft, 15 (p.252)