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The Sultan's CommunistsMoroccan Jews and the Politics of Belonging$
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Alma Rachel Heckman

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781503613805

Published to Stanford Scholarship Online: May 2021

DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9781503613805.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM STANFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.stanford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Stanford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in SSO for personal use.date: 05 July 2022

Co-Optation: The Moroccan Cold War, Israel, and Human Rights

Co-Optation: The Moroccan Cold War, Israel, and Human Rights

(p.176) Chapter 5 Co-Optation: The Moroccan Cold War, Israel, and Human Rights
The Sultan's Communists

Alma Rachel Heckman

Stanford University Press

Chapter 5 analyzes the infamous Years of Lead and how Moroccan Jewish Communists diverged in their responses. Morocco began to publicly embrace its Jewish past while imprisoning its most well-known Jewish Communists in horrendous conditions. Some prominent Moroccan Jewish Communists worked with the state, notably supporting the 1975 Green March. Others supported Sahrawi independence and faced decades of imprisonment. This chapter examines the development of the state’s narrative of Moroccan Jewish tolerance alongside King Hassan II’s relationship with Israel and the United States. Meanwhile, international human rights organizations militated on behalf of prominent Moroccan political prisoners, among them Jews, pressuring the monarchy to release them. With the end of the Cold War and the death of King Hassan II, the state embraced the previously marginalized and reviled Moroccan Jewish Communists as national heroes, upheld as symbols of Moroccan Jewish exceptionalism within the region.

Keywords:   Ila al-Amam, PPS, Years of Lead, Green March, Tourism, Cold War, Israel, Middle East peace process, UNEM, Souffles

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